Hudlin Entertainment Forum

How Ya Livin' => Education => Topic started by: True Father Sankofa on August 27, 2011, 05:38:50 am

Title: Ourstory
Post by: True Father Sankofa on August 27, 2011, 05:38:50 am
8/27

WEB du Bois, Alice Coltrane and Robert Lee Vann
http://on.fb.me/oB5tTt
Title: Re: Ourstory
Post by: True Father Sankofa on August 28, 2011, 06:03:10 pm
Today in Ourstory 8/28

1818 - Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable, trader and founder of
Chicago, joins the ancestors.

1921 - Second Pan-African Congress meets in London, Brussels and
Paris, from August 28 to September 6. Of the 113
delegates, 39 are from Africa and 36 were from the United
States.

1949 - Paul Robeson's scheduled singing appearance at the
Lakeland picnic grounds near Peekskill in Westchester
County, New York, is disrupted by a riot instigated and
provoked by whites angry at Robeson's political stands.

1945 - Brooklyn Dodgers' owner Branch Rickey and future baseball
great Jackie Robinson meet. They will discuss the
difficulties Robinson, an African American athlete, would
face in major-league baseball. Robinson will receive
$600 a month and a $3,500 signing bonus to play for
Montreal of the International League. He would quickly
move up and enjoy a brilliant career with the Brooklyn
Dodgers.

1955 - Fourteen-year-old Chicago youngster Emmett Till is
kidnapped in Money, Mississippi. Four days later he is
found brutally mutilated and murdered, allegedly for
whistling at a white woman. Two whites will be acquitted
of the crime by an all-white jury. The incident will
receive national publicity and highlight racism and
brutality toward African Americans. This incident is
chronicled on tape # 1 in the "Eyes on the Prize" series.

1962 - Seventy-five ministers and laymen--African American and
whites--primarily from the North, are arrested after
prayer demonstration in downtown Albany, Georgia.

1963 - Over 250,000 African-Americans and whites converge on the
Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, the
largest single protest demonstration in United States
history. The march, organized to support sweeping civil
rights measures, will also be the occasion of Martin
Luther King, Jr.'s most famous speech, "I have a Dream."

1964 - A racially motivated civil disobedience riot occurs in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1966 - The National Guard is mobilized to protect Milwaukee,
Wisconsin marchers protesting a judge's membership in
lily-white club.

1968 - Rev. Channing E. Philips of Washington, DC, becomes the
first African American to have his/her name placed in
nomination for president by a major national party.
Philips' name is placed in nomination as the favorite
son candidate by the District of Columbia delegation at
the Democratic convention in Chicago and will receive 67
1/2 votes.

1984 - The Jacksons' Victory Tour broke the record for concert
ticket sales. The group surpasses the 1.1 million mark
in only two months.

1988 - Beah Richards wins an Emmy for outstanding guest
performance in the comedy series "Frank's Place." It is
one of the many acting distinctions for the Vicksburg,
Mississippi native, including her Academy Award
nomination for best supporting actress in "Guess Who's
Coming to Dinner."
Title: Re: Ourstory
Post by: Reginald Hudlin on August 28, 2011, 09:06:18 pm
Loving these new sections, TF7!
Title: 8/29
Post by: True Father Sankofa on August 29, 2011, 01:58:03 pm
1917 - Eloise Gwendolyn Sanford is born in New York City. She
       will become an actress better known as Isabel Sanford and
       will star as Louise on the long-running sitcom "The
       Jeffersons", "All in the Family", and will star in many
       movies including "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner", "Original
       Gangstas", "South Beach", "Love at First Bite", "The
       Photographer", "The New Centurions", "Pendulum", and
       "Buffalo Soldiers". She will be the first African American
       actress to win a Lead Actress Emmy (for Outstanding Lead
       Actress in a Comedy Series in 1981), and will receive a
       star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. She will join the
       ancestors on July 9, 2004, succumbing to cardiac arrest
       and heart disease at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los
       Angeles at the age of 86.
 
1920 - Charlie "Bird" (Charles Christopher) Parker is born in
       Kansas City, Kansas.  The jazz saxophonist will become one
       of the leaders of the bebop movement and be noted for his
       works "Ko Ko" and "In the Still of the Night," among
       others. He will receive numerous awards from Downbeat
       magazine and have the famous jazz club, Birdland, in New
       York City named in his honor. He will be commonly
       considered one of the greatest jazz musicians, ranked with
       such players as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington. Jazz
       critic Scott Yanow speaks for many jazz fans and musicians
       when he states that "Parker was arguably the greatest
       saxophonist of all time." A founding father of bebop, his
       innovative approaches to melody, rhythm, and harmony were
       enormously influential on his contemporaries, and his
       music remains an inspiration and resource for musicians in
       jazz as well as in other genres. Several of Parker's songs
       have become standards, such as "Billie's Bounce,"
       "Anthropology," "Ornithology," and "Confirmation". He will
       join the ancestors on March 12, 1955.
 
1924 - Ruth Lee Jones is born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. She will be
       better known as "Dinah Washington." She will perform with
       Lionel Hampton from 1943 to 1946 and become one of the
       most popular Rhythm & Blues singers of the 1950's and
       early 1960's. Her family will move to Chicago while she
       is still a child. As a child in Chicago she will play
       piano and direct her church choir. She will later study
       in Walter Dyett's renowned music program at DuSable High
       School. There will be a period when she both performed in
       clubs as Dinah Washington, while singing and playing piano
       in Sallie Martin's gospel choir as Ruth Jones. Her
       penetrating voice, excellent timing, and crystal-clear
       enunciation added her own distinctive style to every piece
       she undertook. While making extraordinary recordings in
       jazz, blues, R&B and light pop contexts, she will refuse
       to record gospel music despite her obvious talent in
       singing it. She believed it wrong to mix the secular and
       spiritual, and after she enters the non-religious
       professional music world, she will refuse to include
       gospel in her repertoire. She will begin performing in
       1942 and soon join Lionel Hampton's band. There is some
       dispute about the origin of her name. Some sources say
       the manager of the Garrick Stage Bar gave her the name
       Dinah Washington, while others say Hampton selected it.
       In 1943, she will begin recording for Keynote Records and
       release "Evil Gal Blues", her first hit. By 1955, she will
       release numerous hit songs on the R&B charts, including
       "Baby, Get Lost", "Trouble in Mind", "You Don't Know What
       Love Is" (arranged by Quincy Jones), and a cover of "Cold,
       Cold Heart" by Hank Williams. In March of 1957, she
       marry tenor saxophonist Eddie Chamblee, (formerly on tour
       with Lionel Hampton) who led the band behind her. In 1958,
       she will make a well-received appearance at the Newport
       Jazz Festival. With "What a Diff'rence a Day Makes" in
       1959, she will win a Grammy Award for Best Rhythm and
       Blues Performance. The song will be her biggest hit,
       reaching #8 on the Billboard Hot 100. She will join the
       ancestors on December 13, 1963.
 
1945 - Wyomia Tyus, Olympic runner, who will become the first
       woman sprinter to win consecutive Olympic gold medals in
       the 100 meters (three total), is born in Griffin, Georgia.
       She will also become a 10-time AAU National Champion and
       an All-American Athlete in both the indoor and outdoor
       competition.  Tyus will compete in amateur and
       professional track and field meets from 1960 - 1975.  In
       addition to her athletic achievements, Tyus will hold a
       special place in Olympic history.  At the XXIIIrd Olympic
       Games in Los Angeles, Tyus will become the first woman
       ever, in the history of the Olympic Games, to bear the
       Olympic Flag.
 
1946 - Robert "Bob" Beamon is born in Jamaica, New York.  He
       will become a star in track and field, He will specialize
       in the long jump and will win the 1968 Olympic gold medal
       in the long jump and set the world record of 29 feet, 2
       1/2 inches. His record will stand for twenty three years
       until it is broken by Mike Powell at the World
       Championships in Tokyo in 1991. His jump is still the
       Olympic record to date.
 
1957 - The Civil Rights Act of 1957 is passed by Congress. It is
       the first civil rights legislation since 1875.  The bill
       establishes a civil rights commission and a civil rights
       division in the Justice Department. It also gave the
       Justice Department authority to seek injunctions against
       voting rights infractions.
 
1958 - Michael Joseph Jackson is born in Gary, Indiana.  First
       with the family group the Jackson Five and later as a
       solo artist, Jackson will be one of pop and Rhythm &
       Blues' foremost stars.  His solo album "Off the Wall"
       (1979) will sell 7 million copies worldwide, surpassed
       only by "Thriller", his largest-selling album (also the
       biggest selling album of all time). He will be commonly
       known as "MJ" as well as the "King of Pop". His successful
       career and controversial personal life will be a part of
       pop culture for at least  40 years. He will be widely
       regarded as one of the greatest entertainers and most
       popular recording artists in history, displaying
       complicated physical techniques, such as the robot and the
       moonwalk, that have redefined mainstream dance and
       entertainment. His achievements in the music industry will
       include a revolutionary transformation of music videos,
       establishing high-profile album releases and sales as a
       new trend for record companies to generate profits,
       dominating pop music during the 1980s, and becoming the
       first Black entertainer to amass a strong following on MTV
       while leading the relatively young channel out of
       obscurity. His distinctive style, moves, and vocals will
       inspire, influence, and spawn a whole generation of hip
       hop, pop, and Rhythm & Blues artists. He will join the
       ancestors on June 25, 2009.
 
1962 - Mal Goode becomes the first African American television
       news commentator when he begins broadcasting on ABC.
 
1962 - Carl E. Banks, Jr. is born in Flint, Michigan. He will
       become a star NFL linebacker with the New York Giants. He
       will play for three teams from 1984 to 1995, the New York
       Giants, the Washington Redskins and the Cleveland Browns.
       He will make the Pro Bowl in 1987, have 39.5 career
       quarterback sacks, and be a member of the NFL's 1980's
       All-Decade Team. He will attend Michigan State University
       and be the 3rd overall pick in the 1984 NFL draft. He will
       be a member of the Giants teams that win Super Bowls XXI
       and XXV. Banks will be a standout in their Super Bowl XXI
       victory in which he records 14 total tackles, including 10
       solo tackles.
 
1970 - Black Panthers confront the police in Philadelphia,
       Pennsylvania. One policeman is killed and six are wounded
       in a racial confrontation.
 
1971 - Hank Aaron becomes the first baseball player in the
       National League to drive in 100 or more runs in each of
       11 seasons.
 
1977 - St. Louis Cardinal Lou Brock eclipses Ty Cobb's 49-year-
       old career stolen base record at 893.
 
1979 - The first completely Black-owned radio network in the
       world, "Mutual Black Network" is purchased by the
       Sheridan Broadcasting Corporation.
 
1984 - Edwin Moses wins the 400-meter hurdles in track competition
       in Europe. It is the track star's 108th consecutive
       victory. 2009 – DJ Unk was rushed to the hospital today in 2009, after having trouble breathing. Doctors examined him and told the Atlanta rapper that he’d suffered a mild heart attack. He was only 26 years old.
Title: Re: Ourstory
Post by: True Father Sankofa on August 29, 2011, 01:58:49 pm
Loving these new sections, TF7!
glad to hear it brother
Title: 8/30
Post by: True Father Sankofa on August 30, 2011, 05:28:34 pm
1800 - Jack Bowler and Coachman Gabriel Prosser's plans for a
       slave revolt in Richmond, Virginia, are betrayed by a
       pair of house slaves attempting to save their master.
       Prosser's plan, which involved over 1,100 slaves, would
       have resulted in the death of all slave-owning whites,
       but would have spared Quakers, Frenchmen, elderly women,
       and children.

1838 - The first African American magazine "Mirror of Freedom",
       begins publication in New York City by abolitionist
       David Ruggles.

1843 - The Liberty Party has the first African American
       participation in a national political convention.
       Samuel R. Ward leads the convention in prayer -- Henry
       Highland Garnet, a twenty-seven-year-old Presbyterian
       pastor who calls for a slave revolt and a general slave
       strike.  Amos G. Beman of New Haven, Connecticut is
       elected president of the convention.

1856 - Wilberforce University is established in Xenia, Ohio under
       the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church.  In 1863,
       the university was transferred to the African Methodist
       Episcopal (AME) Church.

1861 - General John C. Fremont issues an order confiscating the
       property of Confederates and emancipating their slaves.
       The order causes wide-spread protest and is revoked by
       President Lincoln.

1892 - S. R. Scottron patents a curtain rod.

1901 - Roy Wilkins is born in St. Louis, Missouri. He will become
       a civil rights leader, assistant executive secretary of
       the NAACP under Walter White and editor of the Crisis
       Magazine for 15 years.  He will become Executive Secretary
       of the NAACP in 1955, a post he will hold for 22 years.
       During his tenure, he will be a champion of civil rights
       committed to using constitutional arguments to help obtain
       full citizenship rights for all African Americans.

1931 - Carrie Saxon Perry is born in Hartford, Connecticut. In
       1987, she will be elected mayor of Hartford, becoming the
       first African American mayor of a major eastern United
       States city.



1956 - A white mob prevents the enrollment of blacks at Mansfield
       High School in Texas.

1961 - James Benton Parsons is confirmed as the first African
       American judge of a United States District Court in the
       continental United States (Northern Illinois).  He had
       been appointed by President John F. Kennedy on April 18,
       1961.

1967 - Thurgood Marshall is confirmed as the first African
       American justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.  He had been
       appointed by President Lyndon Johnson on June 13, 1967.

1969 - Racially motivated civil disturbances occur in Fort
       Lauderdale, Florida.

1983 - Lt. Colonel Guion S. Bluford is the first African American
       in space when he serves as a mission specialist on the
       Challenger space shuttle. The space shuttle, launched
       from Kennedy Space Center in Florida, stayed in orbit
       almost six days.  This was the Challenger's third flight
       into space.

2005 – Lena Baker who faced death by electrocution in GA had her case reviewed 60 years after her conviction
Title: 8/31
Post by: True Father Sankofa on August 31, 2011, 11:50:50 am
1935 - Eldridge Cleaver is born in Wabaseka, Arkansas. He will join
       the Black Panther Party in 1967, becoming its Minister of
       Information and putting together The Black Panther
       newspaper. He will be the 1968 Presidential candidate for
       the Peace and Freedom Party. He and another Panther member,
       will be assaulted by police in 1968 (Cleaver is arrested).
       He and Kathleen Cleaver, his wife and a Panther leader in
       her own right, flee the country, eventually founding the
       Panther's international branch in Algeria before moving to
       France. Cleaver split from the Party in 1971, forming his
       own version of the organization with several Party chapters
       switching from Bobby Seale to him. Cleaver will return to
       the United States in the late 1970's as a born-again
       Christian and a republican. He will spend his later years
       as a conservative idealist concerned with the environment,
       and will join the ancestors on May 1, 1998 at the age of
       62.

1935 - Frank Robinson is born in Beaufort, Texas.  He will become
       a professional baseball player and will become Most
       Valuable Player in the National League in 1961 and Most
       Valuable Player in the American League in 1966.  Later, he
       will become the first African American manager in major
       league baseball.

1936 - Marva Collins is born in Monroeville, Alabama. She will
       become an innovative educator who uses her pension funds
       to open Westside Preparatory School in Chicago, dedicated
       to reverse the educational decline in the city's African
       American neighborhoods.  Collins' motto for the school is
       "entrance to learn, exit to serve."

1943 - The USS Harmon, a destroyer escort, is launched.  It is
       named after Mess Attendant 1st Class Leonard H. Harmon, a
       1942 Navy Cross recipient.  It is the first United States
       warship named for an African American.

1958 -  Edwin Corley Moses,  track star (hurdler, Olympic-gold-
       1984), is born in Dayton, Ohio.  He will be referred to as
       "the greatest hurdler in the history of track and field"
       for his 122 consecutive wins in the 400 meter hurdles
       (spanned eleven years and 22 countries).

1962 - Joint independence is granted to Trinidad and Tobago by
       Great Britain.

1983 - Brigadier General Hazel W. Johnson retires from the Army
       Nurse Corps.  She is the first African American woman to
       achieve the rank of Brigadier General and the first
       African American to be chief of the Army Nurse Corps.

1983 - Edwin Moses of the United States sets the 400 meter hurdle
       record (47.02) in Koblenz, Germany.

1984 - Pinklin Thomas defeats Tim Witherspoon for the WBC
       heavyweight boxing title.

1990 - Nat (Sweetwater) Clifton, former New York Knickerbocker
       star, joins the ancestors after succumbing to a heart
       attack at the age of 65.

1991 - KQEC-TV of San Francisco begins broadcasting under new
       owners, the Minority Television Project.  It is the
       second minority-owned public television station.
Title: Re: Ourstory
Post by: Magic Wand on August 31, 2011, 12:25:53 pm
EXCELLENT, True!  Keep these coming!  Luv'em!!
Title: Re: Ourstory
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 01, 2011, 11:36:33 am
Ourstory 9/1 Heroes Day in Tanzania
1867 - Robert T. Freeman becomes the first African American
       to graduate from Harvard Dental School.

1875 - White Democrats attacked Republicans at Yazoo City,
       Mississippi. One white and three African-Americans were
       killed.

1904 – George Coleman became the first African American to win an Olympic Medal in Modern Olympics
1912 - Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, English-born composer of Hiawatha's
       Wedding Feast and professor of music at Trinity College of
       Music in London, joins the ancestors in Croyden, England.
       Coleridge-Taylor was the most important Black composer of
       his day and toured the United States three times, where he
       played with Will Marion Cook, Clarence Cameron White, and
       collaborated with Paul Laurence Dunbar in setting several
       of his poems to music.

1925 - Rosa Cuthbert (later Guy) is born in Trinidad. She will leave
       Trinidad with her parents for America in 1932. During World
       War II she will join the American Negro Theatre. She will
       study theatre and writing at the University of New York. Most
       of her books are about the dependability of family members
       that care and love each other. She will be one of the founders
       of The Harlem Writers guild (1950). Her works will include: "Bird
       at My Window" (1966), "Children of Longing" (1971), "The Friends"
       (1973), "Ruby" (1976), "Edith Jackson" (1978), "The Disappearance"
       (1979), "Mirror of Her Own" (1981), "A Measure of Time (1983),
       and "New Guys Around the Block" (1983), "Paris, Pee Wee and Big
       Dog (1984), "My Love, My Love, or the Peasant Girl" (1985), and
       "I Heard a Bird Sing" (1987).

1937 - Ron O'Neal is born in Utica, New York.  He will become an
       actor and will star in movies during the 1970's and be
       best known for his role in "Superfly."

1948 - William T. Coleman is appointed by Justice Frankfurter as a
       clerk to the U.S. Supreme Court, the first African
       American to hold the position.  A Harvard Law School
       graduate and Army Air Corps veteran, Coleman will again
       enter public service, first as president of the NAACP
       Legal Defense and Education Fund and, in 1975, as
       Secretary of Transportation under President Gerald Ford.

1970 - Dr. Hugh S. Scott of Washington, DC, becomes the first
       African American superintendent of schools in a major US.
       city.

1971 - The Pittsburgh Pirates field an all African American team
       in a baseball game against the Philadelphia Phillies.

1973 - George Foreman knocks out Jose Roman in the first round to
       retain his heavyweight title.

1975 - General Daniel ("Chappie") James Jr. is promoted to the
       rank of four-star general and named commander-in-chief of
       the North American Air Defense Command.  He is the first
       African American to achieve this rank.

1977 - Ethel Waters, singer and actress, joins the ancestors in
       Chatsworth, California at the age of 80.  She was the
       first African American entertainer to move from vaudeville
       to 'white' entertainment.  She starred in many movies such
       as "Something Special" (1971), "Carib Gold" (1955), "The
       Member of the Wedding" (1952), "Pinky" (1949), "Cabin in
       the Sky" (1943), "Cairo" (1942), "Tales of Manhattan"
       (1942), "Black Musical Featurettes, V. 1" (1929),  Short
       Subjects V. 1" (1929),  and "On With the Show" (1929).
       She also was in the first network show to feature an
       African American actress as the star (The Beulah Show-
       1950).

1979 - Hazel W. Johnson becomes the first African American woman
       to attain general officer rank in American military
       history. Under her tenure as Chief, the Army Nurse Corps
       continued to improve standards of education and training.
       The Army Nurse Corps Standards of Nursing Practice were
       published as an official Department of the Army Pamphlet
       (DA PAM 40-5). She received the Distinguished Service
       Medal, Legion Of Merit, Meritorious Service Medal, and
       the Army Commendation Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster among
       her awards and honors.


EXCELLENT, True!  Keep these coming!  Luv'em!!
fa sho
Title: 9/3
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 03, 2011, 04:14:54 pm
1783 - Richard Allen, founder of the African Methodist Episcopal
       Church, purchases his freedom with his earnings as a
       self-employed teamster.

1838 - Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, disguised as a
       sailor, escapes from slavery in Baltimore, Maryland to
       New Bedford, Massachusetts via New York City.  He will
       take the name Douglass, after the hero of Sir Walter
       Scott's poem "Lady of the Lake".

1865 - The Union Army commander in South Carolina orders the
       Freedmen's Bureau personnel to stop seizing land.

1868 - Henry McNeal Turner delivers a speech before the Georgia
       legislature defending African Americans' rights to hold
       state office.  The lower house of the Georgia
       legislature, rules that African Americans were ineligible
       to hold office, and expels twenty-eight representatives.
       Ten days later the senate expels three African Americans.
       Congress will refuse to re-admit the state to the Union
       until the legislature seats the African American
       representatives.

1891 - John Stephens Durham, assistant editor of the Philadelphia
       Evening Bulletin, is named minister to Haiti.

1891 - Cotton pickers organize a union and stage a strike for
       higher wages in Texas.

1895 - Charles Houston is born in Washington, DC. He will graduate
       as valedictorian from Amherst College and be elected to
       the Phi Beta Kappa honor society in 1915. He will return
       to DC to teach at Howard University. During World War I,
       He will join the then racially segregated U. S. Army as an
       officer and be sent to France. He will return to the U.S.
       in 1919, and begin attending Harvard Law School. He will
       become a member of the Harvard Law Review and graduate cum
       laude. He will become known as "The Man Who Killed Jim
       Crow," playing a role in nearly every civil rights case
       before the Supreme Court between 1930 and Brown v. Board of
       Education (1954). Houston's plan to attack and defeat Jim
       Crow segregation by demonstrating the inequality in the
       "separate but equal" doctrine from the Supreme Court's
       Plessy v. Ferguson decision as it pertained to public
       education in the United States was the master stroke that
       brought about the landmark Brown decision. As the NAACP
       Litigation Director, he trained future Supreme Court
       Justice Thurgood Marshall. He will join the ancestors on
       April 22, 1950.

1910 - Dorothy Leigh Mainor (later Maynor) is born in Norfolk,
       Virginia.  She will become a reknown soprano and will sing
       with all of the major American and European orchestras.
       She will found the Harlem School of the Arts in 1963, after
       ending her performing career. She will retire as executive
       director of the school in 1979. She will join the ancestors
       on February 19, 1996 in West Chester, Pennsylvania.

1918 - Five African American soldiers are hanged for their alleged
       participation in the Houston riot of 1917.

1919 - The Lincoln Motion Picture Company, owned by African
       Americans Noble Johnson and Clarence Brooks, releases its
       first feature-length film, "A Man's Duty".

1970 - Representatives from 27 African nations, Caribbean nations,
       four South American countries, Australia, and the United
       States meet in Atlanta, Georgia, for the first Congress of
       African People.

1984 - A new South African constitution comes into effect, setting
       up a three-chamber, racially divided parliament -  White,
       Indian and Colored (mixed race) people.

1990 - Jonathan A. Rodgers becomes president of CBS's Television
       Stations Division, the highest-ranking African American to
       date in network television.  Rodgers had been general
       manager of WBBM-TV, CBS's Chicago station.
Title: 9/4
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 04, 2011, 09:13:48 am
1781 - California's second pueblo near San Gabriel, Nuestra Senora
       la Reina de Los Angeles de Porciuncula (Los Angeles,
       California) is founded by forty-four settlers, of whom at
       least twenty-six were descendants of Africans.  Among the
       settlers of African descent, according to H.H. Bancroft's
       authoritative "History of California," were "Joseph Moreno,
       Mulatto, 22 years old, wife a Mulattress, five children;
       Manuel Cameron, Mulatto, 30 years old, wife Mulattress;
       Antonio Mesa, Negro, 38 years old, wife Mulattress, six
       children; Jose Antonio Navarro, Mestizo, 42 years old,
       wife, Mulattress, three children; Basil Rosas, Indian, 68
       years old, wife, Mulattress, six children."

1848 - Louis H. Latimer is born in Chelsea, Massachusetts.  A one-
       time draftsman and preparer of patents for Alexander
       Graham Bell, he will later join the United States Electric
       Company, where he will patent a carbon filament for the
       incandescent lamp. When he joins the ancestors on December
       11, 1928, he will be eulogized by his co-workers as a
       valuable member of the "Edison Pioneers," a group of men
       and women who advanced electrical light usage in the
       United States.

1865 - Bowie State College (now University) is established in
       Bowie, Maryland.

1875 - The Clinton Massacre occurs in Clinton, Mississippi. Twenty
       to thirty African Americans are killed over a two-day
       period.

1908 - Richard Wright,  who will become the author of the best-
       selling "Native Son," "Uncle Tom's Children," and "Black
       Boy," is born near Natchez, Mississippi. Wright will be
       among the first African American writers to protest white
       treatment of African Americans. He will join the ancestors
       on November 28, 1960.

1942 -  Merald 'Bubba' Knight is born in Atlanta, Georgia.  He will
       become a singer with his sister Gladys Knight as part of
       her background group, The Pips.  They will record many
       songs including "Midnight Train to Georgia," "Best Thing
       That Ever Happened to Me," "I Heard It Through the
       Grapevine," "Every Beat of My Heart," "Letter Full of
       Tears," and "The Way We Were/Try to Remember" medley.

1953 - Lawrence-Hilton Jacobs is born in New York City.  He will
       become an actor and will star in "Alien Nation,"
       "Rituals," "Roots," "Welcome Back, Kotter," "Quiet Fire,"
       "L.A. Heat," and "L.A. Vice."

1957 - The governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, calls out the
       National Guard to stop nine African American students
       from entering Central High School in Little Rock,
       Arkansas.  Three weeks later, President Dwight Eisenhower
       sends a force of 1,000 U.S. Army paratroopers (The 101st
       Airborne) to Little Rock to guarantee the peaceful
       desegregation of the public school.

1960 - Damon Kyle Wayans is born in New York City, New york.  He
       will become an actor/comedian and will star in "In Living
       Color," "Major Payne," "Blankman," "Celtic Pride,"
       "The Great White Hype" and many others.
Title: 9/5
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 05, 2011, 08:55:25 pm
First off shouts out to Supreme Understanding author of all those books you know and love put out by Supreme Design Publishing, today was his born day. 
 
1804 - Absalom Jones is ordained a priest in the Protestant
       Episcopal Church.
 
1846 - John Wesley Cromwell is born into slavery in Portsmouth,
       Virginia. After receiving freedom, he and his family
       will move to Philadelphia. In 1865, he will return to
       Portsmouth to open a private school, which will fail due
       to racial harassment. He will enter Howard University in
       Washington, DC in 1871. He will receive a law degree and
       be admitted to the bar in 1874. He will be the first
       African American to practice law for the Interstate
       Commerce Commission. He will found the weekly paper, "The
       People's Advocate" in 1876. In 1881, he will be elected
       President of Bethel Library and Historical Association in
       Washington, DC. He will use this position to generate
       interest in African American history. He will inspire the
       foundation of the Association for the Study of Negro Life
       and History in 1915. He will also be the Secretary of the
       American Negro Academy. He will join the ancestors on
       April 14, 1927.
 
1859 - "Our Nig" by Harriet E. Wilson is published.  It is the
       first novel published in the United States by an African
       American woman and will be lost to readers for years
       until reprinted with a critical essay by noted African
       American scholar Henry Louis Gates, Jr. in 1983.
 
1877 - African Americans from the Post-Civil-War South, led by
       Benjamin 'Pap' Singleton, settle in Kansas and establish
       towns like Nicodemus, to take advantage of free land
       offered by the United States government through the
       Homestead Act of 1860.
 
1895 - George Washington Murray is elected to Congress from South
       Carolina.
 
1916 - Novelist Frank Yerby is born in Augusta, Georgia. A student
       at Fisk University and the University of Chicago, Yerby's
       early short story "Health Card" will win the O. Henry
       short story award. He will later turn to adventure novels
       and become a best-selling author in the 1940's and 1950's
       with "The Foxes of Harrow", "The Vixens" and many others.
       His later novels will include "Goat Song", "The Darkness
       at Ingraham's Crest-A Tale of the Slaveholding South",
       and "Devil Seed".  In total, Yerby will publish over 30
       novels that sell over 20 million copies. He will leave
       the United States in 1955 in protest against racial
       discrimination, moving to Spain where he will remain for
       the rest of his life. He will join the ancestors on
       November 29, 1991, after succumbing to congestive heart
       failure in Madrid, Spain. He will be interred there in the
       Cementerio de la Almudena.
 
1960 - Cassius Clay of Louisville, Kentucky, wins the gold medal
       in light heavyweight boxing at the Olympic Games in Rome,
       Italy. Clay will later change his name to Muhammad Ali
       and become one of the great boxing champions in the world.
       In 1996, at the Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia,
       Muhammad Ali will have the honor of lighting the Olympic
       flame.
 
1960 - Leopold Sedar Senghor, poet, politician, is elected
       President of Senegal.
 
1972 - Roberta Flack and Donny Hathaway win a gold record -- for
       their duet, "Where is the Love".  The song gets to number
       five on the pop music charts and is one of two songs for
       the duo to earn gold. The other will be "The Closer I Get
       To You" (1978).
 
1995 - O.J. Simpson jurors hear testimony that police detective
       Mark Fuhrman had uttered a racist slur, and advocated the
       killing of Blacks.
Title: 9/6
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 06, 2011, 08:32:12 pm
1826 - John Brown Russwurm graduates from Bowdoin College.  While
       many sources consider him to be the first African American
       in America to graduate from college, he was preceded by
       Edward Jones (B.A. Amherst College - August 23, 1826) and
       Alexander Lucius Twilight (B.A. Middlebury College -
       1823).

1848 - National Black Convention meets in Cleveland, Ohio with
       some seventy delegates.   Frederick Douglass is elected
       president of the convention.

1865 - Thaddeus Stevens, powerful U.S. congressman, urges
       confiscation of estates of Confederate leaders and the
       distribution of land to adult freedmen in forty-acre
       lots.

1866 - Frederick Douglass becomes the first African American
       delegate to a national political convention.

1876 - A race riot occurs in Charleston, South Carolina.
1883 – J.A. Rogers, publisher, lecturer and historian was born in Negil, Jamaica

1892 - George "Little Chocolate" Dixon beats Jack Skelly in New
       Orleans to win the world featherweight title. While some
       African American citizens celebrate for two days, the New
       Orleans Times-Democrat says, "It was a mistake to match a
       Negro and a white man, to bring the races together on any
       terms of equality even in the prize ring."

1905 - The Atlanta Life Insurance Company is established by A.F.
       Herndon.

1910 – Katherine Dunham was born. She was a pioneer in the use of folk and ethnic choreography, and considered one of the founders of the anthropological dance movement. With "Aida" in 1963, she became the first Black to choreograph for the Metropolitan Opera in New York city.

1930 - Leander Jay Shaw, Jr. is born in Salem, Virginia.  He will
       become a justice of the Florida State Supreme Court in
       1983 and, in 1990, the chief justice, a first in Florida
       and the second African American chief justice in any
       state supreme court.

1966 - A racially motivated civil disturbance occurs in Atlanta,
       Georgia.

1967 - President Lyndon B. Johnson names Walter E. Washington,
       commissioner and "unofficial" mayor of Washington, DC.
         -singer Macy Gray was born

1968 - The Kingdom of Swaziland achieves full independence from
       Great Britain as a constitutional monarchy.

1979 – Rapper Foxxy Brown was born

1989 - The National Party, the governing party of South Africa,
       loses nearly a quarter of its parliamentary seats to
       far-right and anti-apartheid rivals, its worst setback
       in four decades.
Title: 9/7
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 08, 2011, 05:24:43 am
9/7 Independence Day in Brazil

1800 - The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church is dedicated
       in New York City.

1859 - John Merrick, co-organizer of The North Carolina Mutual
       Life Insurance Company, is born.

1914 - Jean Blackwell Hutson is born in Summerfield, Florida.
       From 1948 until she retired in 1980, she will help build
       the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in
       Harlem into the world's primary source for books, art,
       historical documents and other materials on people of
       African Descent. She will also help the center in 1981,
       win a federal grant so the collection could move from its
       cramped quarters to a more spacious $3.7 million, five-
       story building in Harlem. By then, she will be retired as
       the institution's head and will take a job in the office
       of library administration at the Public Library's
       headquarters in New York. She will join the ancestors in
       1998. At the time of her death, the Schomburg Collection
       will hold about 150,000 volumes, 3.5 million manuscripts,
       the largest assemblage of photographs documenting Black
       life, and rare artifacts-including a 16th century
       manuscript, "Ad Catholicum" by Juan Latino, believed to
       be the first book written by a person of African descent.

1917 - Jacob Lawrence is born in Atlantic City, New Jersey.  He
       will become one of the leading painters in chronicling
       African American history and urban life. Among his most
       celebrated works will be the historical panels "The Life
       of Toussaint L'ouverture" and "The Life of Harriet
       Tubman." He will join the ancestors on June 9, 2000.

1927 – Dolores Kendrick, future Poet Laureate of the District of Columbia, is born in Washington, DC.

1930 - Theodore Walter "Sonny" Rollins, jazz saxophonist, is
       born in New York City. Rollins will grow up in a
       neighborhood where Thelonious Monk, Coleman Hawkins (his
       early idol), and Bud Powell were playing. After recording
       with the latter in 1949, Rollins begins recording with
       Miles Davis in 1951. During the next three years he
       composes three of his best-known tunes, "Oleo," "Doxy,"
       and "Airegin," and continues to work with Davis, Charlie
       Parker, and others.  Following his withdrawal from music
       in 1954 to cure a heroin addiction, Rollins re-emerges
       with the Clifford Brown-Max Roach quintet in 1955, and
       the next four years prove to be his most fertile. He
       will be awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1972. On
       September 7th 2011, he is named as one of the honorees for
       the 2011 Kennedy Center Honors. He will be celebrated for
       his talent in improvisational saxophone.

1934 - James Milton Campbell, Jr. is born in Inverness,
       Mississippi. He will becomes a blues guitar artist better
       known as "Little Milton." He started his career playing
       in blues bands when he was a teenager. His first
       recording was accompanying pianist Willie Love in the
       early 50s. He then appeared under his own name on three
       singles issued on Sam Phillips' Sun label under the
       guidance of Ike Turner. His vocal style will be in the
       mould of Bobby "Blues" Bland and "T-Bone" Walker.  His
       hits will include "We're Gonna Make It," "Who's Cheating
       Who," "Grits Ain't Groceries," and "That's What Love
       Will Do."

1937 - Olly Wilson is born in St. Louis, Missouri.  He will
       become a classical composer whose works will be played
       by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Oakland City
       Philharmonic, San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, and many
       others.

1942 - Richard Roundtree is born in New Rochelle, New York. He
       will attend college on a football scholarship but will
       later give up athletics to pursue an acting career.
       After touring as a model with the Ebony Fashion Fair, he
       will join the Negro Ensemble Company's acting workshop
       program in 1967. He will make his film debut in 1970's
       "What Do You Say to a Naked Lady?," but is still an
       unknown when filmmaker Gordon Parks, Sr. cast him as
       Shaft. The role will shoot Roundtree to instant fame,
       launching the blaxploitation genre and proving so
       successful at the box office that it helped save MGM
       from the brink of bankruptcy. Thanks to the film's
       popularity -- as well as its two sequels, 1972's
       "Shaft's Big Score!" and the following year's "Shaft in
       Africa," and even a short-lived television series. He
       will also appear in films including the 1974 disaster
       epic "Earthquake," 1975's "Man Friday" and the
       blockbuster 1977 TV miniseries "Roots."

1949 - Gloria Gaynor is born in Newark New Jersey.  She will
       become a singer and will be best known for her 1979
       hit, "I Will Survive".  The hit tops the charts in both
       the United Kingdom and the United States.

1954 - Integration of public schools begins in Washington, DC
       and Baltimore, Maryland.

1972 - Curtis Mayfield earns a gold record for his album,
       "Superfly", from the movie of the same name.  The LP
       contained the hits, "Freddie's Dead" and "Superfly" --
       both songs were also million record sellers.

1980 - Bessie A. Buchanan, the first African American woman to
       be elected to the New York State legislature, joins the
       ancestors in New York City. Before her political career,
       she was a Broadway star who had leading roles in
       "Shuffle Along" and "Showboat."

1986 - Bishop Desmond Tutu becomes the archbishop of Cape Town,
       two years after winning the Nobel Peace Prize for his
       nonviolent opposition to apartheid in South Africa. As
       archbishop, he was the first Black to head South
       Africa's Anglican church. In 1948, South Africa's white
       minority government institutionalized its policy of
       racial segregation and white supremacy known as
       apartheid--Afrikaans for "apartness." Eighty percent of
       the country's land was set aside for white use, and
       black Africans entering this territory required special
       passes. Blacks, who had no representation in the
       government, were subjected to different labor laws and
       educational standards than whites and lived in extreme
       poverty while white South Africans prospered.

1987 - Dr. Benjamin S. Carson, a pediatric neurosurgeon at
       Johns Hopkins University Hospital, leads a surgical
       team that successfully separates Siamese twins who had
       been joined at the head.

1994 - U.S. Marines begin training on a Puerto Rican island
       amid talk in Washington of a U.S.-led intervention in
       Haiti.

1995 – Eazy-E was born today in 1963. He was one of the first to translate drug money into legitimate success in the hip hop music industry. At 23, the controversial NWA founder attended an exclusive banquet at the White House with George Bush, Sr., wearing a jheri curl and a black leather suit

1996 – Rapper 2pac Shakur was shot in Vegas after attending a Mike Tyson fight where he got into a brawl with Orlando Anderson afterwards in the hotel lobby. He would die 6 days later on Friday the 13th from complications from the surgeries and gunshot wounds.

2011 - Sonny Rollins is named as one of the honorees for the 2011
       Kennedy Center Honors. He will be celebrated for his
       talent in improvisational saxophone.
Title: 9/8
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 08, 2011, 11:13:08 am

Rash Hashanah (begins at sunset)
New Moon

1875 - The governor of Mississippi requests federal troops to
       protect African American voters. Attorney General Edward
       Pierrepont refuses the request and says "the whole
       public are tired of these annual autumnal outbreaks in
       the South..."

1925 - Ossian Sweet, a prominent Detroit doctor, is arrested on
       murder charges after shots are fired into a mob in front
       of the Sweet home in a previously all-white area.  Sweet
       is defended by Clarence Darrow, who won an acquittal in
       the second trial.

1940 - Willie Tyler is born in Red Level, Alabama.  He will
       become a well known ventriloquist along with his wooden
       partner, Lester.

1957 - Tennis champion, Althea Gibson, becomes the first
       African American athlete to win a U.S. national tennis
       championship.

1965 - Dorothy Dandridge, nominated for an Oscar for her
       performance in "Carmen Jones," joins the ancestors at
       the age of 41 in Hollywood, California.

1968 - Black Panther Huey Newton is convicted of voluntary
       manslaughter in the fatal shooting of an Oakland
       policeman.  He will later begin a 2 to l5-year jail
       sentence.

1968 - Saundra Williams is crowned the first Miss Black America
       in a contest held exclusively for African American
       women in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

1975 - The city of Boston begins court ordered citywide busing
       of public schools amid scattered incidents of violence.

1981 - Roy Wilkins, longtime and second executive director of
       the NAACP, joins the ancestors.

1990 - Marjorie Judith Vincent of Illinois is selected as Miss
       America in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The Haitian
       native, a third-year law student at Duke University,
       is the fourth woman of African descent to become Miss
       America.
Title: 9/9
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 10, 2011, 07:43:55 am
1739 - Led by a slave named Jemmy (Cato), a slave revolt occurs
       in Stono, South Carolina. Twenty-five whites are killed
       before the insurrection is put down.

1806 - Sarah Mapps Douglass is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
       She is the daughter of renowned abolitionists Robert
       Douglass, Sr. and Grace Bustill Douglass. As a child, she
       enjoys life among Philadelphia's elite and will be well
       educated by a private tutor. She will become a teacher in
       New York, but will return to Philadelphia where she will
       operate a successful private school for Black women,
       giving women of color the opportunity to receive a high
       school education. As the daughter of one of the
       Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society's founding
       members, she will become active in the abolitionist
       movement at a young age. She will develop a distaste for
       the prejudices of white Quakers early on and will devote
       much of her life to combating slavery and racism. She
       will develop a close friendship with white Quaker
       abolitionists Sarah and Angelina Grimke. At the urgings
       of the Grimke sisters, She will attend the Anti-Slavery
       Convention of American Women, held in New York in
       1837--the first national convention of American
       antislavery women to integrate Black and white members--
       and serve on the ten-member committee on arrangements for
       the convention. Throughout her abolitionist career, she
       will also serve as recording secretary, librarian, and
       manager for the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society,
       contribute to both the Liberator and the Anglo-African
       Magazine, become a fundraiser for the Black press, give
       numerous public lectures, and serve as vice-president of
       the women's branch of the Freedmen's Aid Society. From
       1853 to 1877, she will serve as a supervisor at the
       Institute for Colored Youth, a Quaker-sponsored
       establishment. During this time, she will also acquire
       basic medical training at the Female Medical College of
       Pennsylvania and at Pennsylvania Medical University,
       where she will study female health and hygiene--subjects
       on which she will lecture in evening classes and at
       meetings of the Banneker Institute. In 1855, she will
       marry African American Episcopal clergyman William
       Douglass. She will join the ancestors in September, 1882.

1816 - Rev. John Gregg Fee, the son of white slaveholders, is
       born in Bracken County, Kentucky. He will become member
       of the American Missionary Association, and will found a
       settlement called "Berea" on land donated to him by an
       admirer, Cassius Marcellus Clay.  It will be later that
       he will be inspired to build a college, adjacent to the
       donated land - Berea College, the first interracial
       college in the state. During the American Civil War, He
       will work at Camp Nelson to have facilities constructed
       to support freedmen and their families, and to provide
       them with education and preaching while the men were being
       taught to be soldiers. He died on January 11, 1901.

1817 - Captain Paul Cuffe, entrepreneur and civil rights
       activist, joins the ancestors at 58, in Westport,
       Masschusetts. Cuffe was a Massachusetts shipbuilder and
       sea captain. He also was one of the most influential
       African American freedmen of the eighteenth century. In
       1780, Cuffe and six other African Americans refused to
       pay taxes util they were granted citizenship.
       Massachusetts gave African Americans who owned property
       the vote three years later.  Although Cuffe became
       wealthy, he believed that most African Americans would
       never be completely accepted in white society. In 1816,
       Cuffe began one of the first experiments in colonizing
       African Americans in Africa when he brought a group to
       Sierra Leone. Cuffe's experiment helped inspire the
       founding of the American Colonization Society later
       that year.

1823 - Alexander Lucius Twilight, becomes the first African
       American to earn a baccalaureate degree in the United
       States, when he graduates from Middlebury College with
       a BA degree.

1915 - A group of visionary scholars (George Cleveland Hall,
       W.B. Hartgrove, Alexander L. Jackson, and James E.
       Stamps) led by Dr. Carter G. Woodson found the
       Association for the Study of Negro Life and History
       (ASNLH) in Chicago, Illinois. Dr. Woodson is convinced
       that among scholars, the role of his own people in
       American history and in the history of other cultures
       was being either ignored or misrepresented. Dr. Woodson
       realizes the need for special research into the
       neglected past of the Negro. The association is the
       only organization of its kind concerned with preserving
       African American history.

1934 - Sonia Sanchez is born in Birmingham, Alabama.  She will
       become a noted poet, playwright, short story writer, and
       author of children's books. She will be most noted for
       her poetry volumes "We a BaddDDD People", "A Blues Book
       for Blue Black Magical Women", and anthologies she will
       edit including "We Be Word Sorcerers: 25 Stories by
       Black Americans."

1941 - Otis Redding is born in Dawson, Georgia, the son of a
       Baptist minister. He will become a rhythm and blues
       musician and singer and will be best known for his
       recording of "[Sittin' on] The Dock of the Bay," which
       will be released after he joins the ancestors (succumbs in
       a small airplane crash) in December, 1967. Some of his
       other hits were "I've Been Loving You Too Long", "Respect",
       and "Try A Little Tenderness."

1942 - Inez Foxx is born in Greensboro, North Carolina. She will
       become a rhythm and blues singer and will perform as
       part of a duuo act with her brother, Charlie. Their
       biggest hit will be "Mockingbird" in 1963. They will
       record together until 1967.

1942 - Luther Simmons is born in New York City, New York. He
       will become a rhythm and blues singer with the group
       "The Main Ingredient."  They will be best known for
       their hit, "Everybody Plays the Fool."

1945 - Dione LaRue is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  She
       will become a rhythm and blues singer better known as
       "Dee Dee Sharp." Her first hit will be "It's Mashed
       Potato Time" in 1962. She will also record "Gravy" [For
       My Mashed Potatoes], "Ride!", "Do the Bird", and "Slow
       Twistin' "(with Chubby Checker).

1946 – Singer and muscian, Billy Preston was born

1957 - President Eisenhower signs the first civil rights bill
       passed by Congress since Reconstruction.

1957 - Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth is mobbed when he attempts to
       enroll his daughters in a "white" Birmingham school.

1957 - Nashville's new Hattie Cotton Elementary School with
       enrollment of one African American and 388 whites is
       virtually destroyed by a dynamite blast.

1962 - Two churches are burned near Sasser, Georgia. African
       American leaders ask the president to stop the "Nazi-
       like reign of terror in southwest Georgia."

1963 - Alabama Governor George Wallace is served a federal
       injunction when he orders state police to bar African
       American students from enrolling in white schools.

1965 – Hip Hop pioneer M.C. Shan was born Shawn Moltke in Queens , New York , on this day in 1965.
1971 - More than 1,200 inmates at the Attica Correctional
       Facility in upstate New York gain control of the
       facility in a well-planned takeover. During the initial
       violence, 50 correctional officers and civilian
       employees are beaten and taken hostage. Correctional
       officer William Quinn receives the roughest beating and
       is soon freed by the inmates due to the severity of his
       injuries. Police handling of the takeover will result
       in the deaths of many inmates and will turn the nation's
       interest toward the conditions in U.S. penal
       institutions.

1981 - Vernon E. Jordan resigns as president of the National
       Urban League and announces plans to join a Washington DC
       legal firm.  He will be succeeded by John E. Jacob,
       executive vice president of the league.

1985 - President Reagan orders sanctions against South Africa
       because of that country's apartheid policies.

1990 - Liberian President Samuel K. Doe is captured and joins
       the ancestors after being killed by rebel forces. In
       1985, he was elected president, but Charles Taylor and
       followers overthrew his government in 1989, which will
       spark a seven-year long civil war.
Title: Re: 9/9
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 10, 2011, 08:20:09 am
1739 - Led by a slave named Jemmy (Cato), a slave revolt occurs
       in Stono, South Carolina. Twenty-five whites are killed
       before the insurrection is put down.

1806 - Sarah Mapps Douglass is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
       She is the daughter of renowned abolitionists Robert
       Douglass, Sr. and Grace Bustill Douglass. As a child, she
       enjoys life among Philadelphia's elite and will be well
       educated by a private tutor. She will become a teacher in
       New York, but will return to Philadelphia where she will
       operate a successful private school for Black women,
       giving women of color the opportunity to receive a high
       school education. As the daughter of one of the
       Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society's founding
       members, she will become active in the abolitionist
       movement at a young age. She will develop a distaste for
       the prejudices of white Quakers early on and will devote
       much of her life to combating slavery and racism. She
       will develop a close friendship with white Quaker
       abolitionists Sarah and Angelina Grimke. At the urgings
       of the Grimke sisters, She will attend the Anti-Slavery
       Convention of American Women, held in New York in
       1837--the first national convention of American
       antislavery women to integrate Black and white members--
       and serve on the ten-member committee on arrangements for
       the convention. Throughout her abolitionist career, she
       will also serve as recording secretary, librarian, and
       manager for the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society,
       contribute to both the Liberator and the Anglo-African
       Magazine, become a fundraiser for the Black press, give
       numerous public lectures, and serve as vice-president of
       the women's branch of the Freedmen's Aid Society. From
       1853 to 1877, she will serve as a supervisor at the
       Institute for Colored Youth, a Quaker-sponsored
       establishment. During this time, she will also acquire
       basic medical training at the Female Medical College of
       Pennsylvania and at Pennsylvania Medical University,
       where she will study female health and hygiene--subjects
       on which she will lecture in evening classes and at
       meetings of the Banneker Institute. In 1855, she will
       marry African American Episcopal clergyman William
       Douglass. She will join the ancestors in September, 1882.

1816 - Rev. John Gregg Fee, the son of white slaveholders, is
       born in Bracken County, Kentucky. He will become member
       of the American Missionary Association, and will found a
       settlement called "Berea" on land donated to him by an
       admirer, Cassius Marcellus Clay.  It will be later that
       he will be inspired to build a college, adjacent to the
       donated land - Berea College, the first interracial
       college in the state. During the American Civil War, He
       will work at Camp Nelson to have facilities constructed
       to support freedmen and their families, and to provide
       them with education and preaching while the men were being
       taught to be soldiers. He died on January 11, 1901.

1817 - Captain Paul Cuffe, entrepreneur and civil rights
       activist, joins the ancestors at 58, in Westport,
       Masschusetts. Cuffe was a Massachusetts shipbuilder and
       sea captain. He also was one of the most influential
       African American freedmen of the eighteenth century. In
       1780, Cuffe and six other African Americans refused to
       pay taxes util they were granted citizenship.
       Massachusetts gave African Americans who owned property
       the vote three years later.  Although Cuffe became
       wealthy, he believed that most African Americans would
       never be completely accepted in white society. In 1816,
       Cuffe began one of the first experiments in colonizing
       African Americans in Africa when he brought a group to
       Sierra Leone. Cuffe's experiment helped inspire the
       founding of the American Colonization Society later
       that year.

1823 - Alexander Lucius Twilight, becomes the first African
       American to earn a baccalaureate degree in the United
       States, when he graduates from Middlebury College with
       a BA degree.

1915 - A group of visionary scholars (George Cleveland Hall,
       W.B. Hartgrove, Alexander L. Jackson, and James E.
       Stamps) led by Dr. Carter G. Woodson found the
       Association for the Study of Negro Life and History
       (ASNLH) in Chicago, Illinois. Dr. Woodson is convinced
       that among scholars, the role of his own people in
       American history and in the history of other cultures
       was being either ignored or misrepresented. Dr. Woodson
       realizes the need for special research into the
       neglected past of the Negro. The association is the
       only organization of its kind concerned with preserving
       African American history.

1934 - Sonia Sanchez is born in Birmingham, Alabama.  She will
       become a noted poet, playwright, short story writer, and
       author of children's books. She will be most noted for
       her poetry volumes "We a BaddDDD People", "A Blues Book
       for Blue Black Magical Women", and anthologies she will
       edit including "We Be Word Sorcerers: 25 Stories by
       Black Americans."

1941 - Otis Redding is born in Dawson, Georgia, the son of a
       Baptist minister. He will become a rhythm and blues
       musician and singer and will be best known for his
       recording of "[Sittin' on] The Dock of the Bay," which
       will be released after he joins the ancestors (succumbs in
       a small airplane crash) in December, 1967. Some of his
       other hits were "I've Been Loving You Too Long", "Respect",
       and "Try A Little Tenderness."

1942 - Inez Foxx is born in Greensboro, North Carolina. She will
       become a rhythm and blues singer and will perform as
       part of a duuo act with her brother, Charlie. Their
       biggest hit will be "Mockingbird" in 1963. They will
       record together until 1967.

1942 - Luther Simmons is born in New York City, New York. He
       will become a rhythm and blues singer with the group
       "The Main Ingredient."  They will be best known for
       their hit, "Everybody Plays the Fool."

1945 - Dione LaRue is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  She
       will become a rhythm and blues singer better known as
       "Dee Dee Sharp." Her first hit will be "It's Mashed
       Potato Time" in 1962. She will also record "Gravy" [For
       My Mashed Potatoes], "Ride!", "Do the Bird", and "Slow
       Twistin' "(with Chubby Checker).

1946 – Singer and muscian, Billy Preston was born

1957 - President Eisenhower signs the first civil rights bill
       passed by Congress since Reconstruction.

1957 - Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth is mobbed when he attempts to
       enroll his daughters in a "white" Birmingham school.

1957 - Nashville's new Hattie Cotton Elementary School with
       enrollment of one African American and 388 whites is
       virtually destroyed by a dynamite blast.

1962 - Two churches are burned near Sasser, Georgia. African
       American leaders ask the president to stop the "Nazi-
       like reign of terror in southwest Georgia."

1963 - Alabama Governor George Wallace is served a federal
       injunction when he orders state police to bar African
       American students from enrolling in white schools.

1965 – Hip Hop pioneer M.C. Shan was born Shawn Moltke in Queens , New York , on this day in 1965.
1971 - More than 1,200 inmates at the Attica Correctional
       Facility in upstate New York gain control of the
       facility in a well-planned takeover. During the initial
       violence, 50 correctional officers and civilian
       employees are beaten and taken hostage. Correctional
       officer William Quinn receives the roughest beating and
       is soon freed by the inmates due to the severity of his
       injuries. Police handling of the takeover will result
       in the deaths of many inmates and will turn the nation's
       interest toward the conditions in U.S. penal
       institutions.

1981 - Vernon E. Jordan resigns as president of the National
       Urban League and announces plans to join a Washington DC
       legal firm.  He will be succeeded by John E. Jacob,
       executive vice president of the league.

1985 - President Reagan orders sanctions against South Africa
       because of that country's apartheid policies.

1990 - Liberian President Samuel K. Doe is captured and joins
       the ancestors after being killed by rebel forces. In
       1985, he was elected president, but Charles Taylor and
       followers overthrew his government in 1989, which will
       spark a seven-year long civil war.


this was for yesterday by the way which is recognized as Eid-al-Fatir which is the end of Ramadan, also in 1999, a Texas jury imposes the death sentence on Lawrence Russell Brewer, the second white supremacist convicted of killing James Byrd Jr.
Title: 9/10
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 10, 2011, 09:25:08 am
1847 - John Roy Lynch is born a slave in Concordia Parish,
       Louisiana. Becoming free during the American Civil War,
       he will settle in Natchez, Mississippi. There he will
       learn the photography business, attend night school, and
       enter public life in 1869 as justice of the peace for
       Natchez county. In November, 1869 Lynch will be elected
       to the Mississippi House of Representatives, and re-
       elected in 1871.  Although Blacks never will be in the
       majority in the Mississippi legislature, Lynch will be
       chosen speaker of the House in 1872. He will be elected
       to the U.s. House of Representatives in 1873. In 1884,
       he will become the first African American to preside
       over a national convention of a major U.S. political
       party and deliver the keynote address, when he was
       appointed temporary chairman. In his book, "The Facts
       of Reconstruction" (1913), Lynch will attempt to dispel
       the erroneous notion that Southern state governments
       after the Civil War were under the control of Blacks.
       He will join the ancestors on November 2, 1939 in
       Chicago, Illinois.

1886 - Poet Georgia Douglas Johnson is born in Atlanta, Georgia.
       (Editor's Note: Her birth is uncertain, given as early as
       1877 and as late as 1886). Among her books will be "Heart
       of a Woman", "Bronze", "An Autumn Love  Cycle", and "Share
       My Love".  She will be anthologized in Arna Bontemps's
       "American Negro Poetry" and Davis and Lee's "Negro
       Caravan," among others. Her home in Washington, DC, will
       become the center for African American literary
       gatherings. She will join the ancestors on May 14, 1966.

1913 - George W. Buckner, a physician from Indiana, is named
       minister to Liberia.

1913 - The Cleveland Call & Post newspaper is established.

1927 - Jacques E. Leeds in born in Baltimore, Maryland. He will
       become a leading African American attorney in Baltimore.
       He will become the first African American appointed a
       commisioner on the Maryland Worker's Compensation
       Commission in 1991 (by governor William Donald Schaefer).

1930 - Charles E. Mitchell, certified public accountant and banker
       from West Virginia, is named minister to Liberia.

1940 - Roy Ayers is born in Los Angeles, California.  In high
       school Ayers will form his first group, the Latin Lyrics,
       and in the early 60s will begin working professionally
       with flautist/saxophonist Curtis Amy. He will become a
       popular jazz vibraphonist and vocalist, reaching the peak
       of his commercial popularity during the mid-70s and early
       80s.

1956 - Louisville, Kentucky integrates its public school system.

1960 - Running barefoot, Ethiopian Abebe Bikila wins the marathon
       at the Rome Olympic Games.

1961 - Jomo Kenyatta returns to Kenya from exile to lead his
       country.

1962 - Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black vacates an order of a
       lower court, ruling that the University of Mississippi
       had to admit James H. Meredith, an African American Air
       Force veteran whose application for admission had been on
       file and in the courts for fourteen months.

1963 - 20 African American students enter public schools in
       Birmingham, Tuskegee and Mobile, Alabama, following a
       standoff between federal authorities and Governor George
       C. Wallace.

1965 - Father Divine joins the ancestors in Philadelphia,
       Pennsylvania. Divine, born George Baker, was the founder
       of the Peace Mission, a religious group whose followers
       worshiped Divine as God incarnate on earth.

1968 - Big Daddy Kane was born Antonio Monterio Hardy in Brooklyn , New York on this day in 1968. He was one of the most lyrical, trendsetting mcs and regarded as one of the most influential and skilled “golden age” rappers, and –by some account-one of the greatest of all time.

1973 - A commemorative stamp of Henry Ossawa Tanner is issued by
       the U.S. Postal Service. Part of its American Arts issue,
       the stamp celebrates the work and accomplishments of
       Tanner, the first African American artist elected to the
       National Academy of Design.

1974 - Guinea-Bissau gains independence from Portugal.

1976 - Mordecai Johnson, the first African American president of
       Howard University, joins the ancestors at age 86.
Title: 9/11
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 12, 2011, 03:31:48 am
1740 - An issue of the Pennsylvania Gazette reports on a Negro
       named Simon who reportedly can "bleed and draw teeth."
       It is the first mention of an African American doctor or
       dentist in the American Colonies.

1885 - Moses A. Hopkins, minister and educator, is named minister
       to Liberia.

1923 - Charles Evers is born in Decatur, Mississippi. He will
       become a civil rights worker who will assume the post of
       field director of the Mississippi NAACP after his
       brother, Medgar, is assassinated in 1963. He will be
       elected mayor of Fayette, Mississippi, in 1969.

1943 - Loletha Elaine "Lola" Falana is born in Camden, New
       Jersey. She will become a dancer, most notably in
       Broadway's "Golden Boy", and be a successful performer
       on television and in Las Vegas, where she will be called
       "The First Lady of Las Vegas." In the late 1980s, she
       will suffer from a relapse of multiple sclerosis. Her
       relapse will be severe, leaving her left side paralyzed
       and becoming partially blind with her voice and hearing
       impaired. Recovery will last a year and a half, during
       which she will spend most of her time praying. She will
       attribute her recovery to a spiritual experience
       described as "Being able to feel the presence of the
       Lord." She will convert to Roman Catholicism and work
       her newly-found spirituality into her everyday life.
       Though she will perform again in Las Vegas shows in 1987,
       her practice of religion and faith will become the center
       of her life. After another bout with multiple sclerosis
       in 1996, she will return to Philadelphia and live with
       her parents for a short time. No longer performing, she
       will tour the country with a message of hope and
       spirituality. When not on tour, she will live a quiet
       life in Las Vegas, working on the apostolate she will
       found, "The Lambs of God Ministry." The ministry will be
       focused on helping children who have been orphaned in
       Sub-Saharan Africa, and will work closely with the group,
       "Save Sub-Saharan Orphans."

1959 - Duke Ellington receives the NAACP's Spingarn Medal for
       his outstanding musical achievements and contributions
       to the field of music.

1962 - Two youths involved in a voter registration drive in
       Mississippi are wounded by shotgun blasts fired through
       the window of a home in Ruleville. A spokesperson for
       SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) asks
       the president to "convene a special White House
       Conference to discuss means of stopping the wave of
       terror sweeping through the South, especially where
       SNCC is working on voter registration."

1967 – The City Inc. an alternative school and community service center was founded in Minneapolis, MN

1974 – Haile Selassi I is deposed from the Ethiopian throne.

1977 - Quincy Jones wins an Emmy for outstanding achievement in
       musical composition for the miniseries "Roots".  It is
       one of nine Emmys for the series, an unprecedented
       number.
Title: 9/12
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 12, 2011, 06:34:36 am
Cape Verde Independence Day

1913 - James Cleveland Owens is born in Oakville, Alabama. He
       will be better known as Jesse Owens, one of the greatest
       track and field stars in history.  Owens will achieve
       fame at the 1936 Summer Olympic Games in Berlin, where
       he will win four gold medals, dispelling Hitler's notion
       of the superior Aryan race and the inferiority of Black
       athletes. Among his honors will be the Medal of Freedom,
       presented to him by President Gerald Ford in 1976. He will
       join the ancestors on March 31, 1980.

1935 - Richard Hunt is born in Chicago, Illinois.  A graduate of
       the Art Institute of Chicago, he will later study in
       Europe and be considered one of the leading sculptors in
       the United States.  His work will be shown extensively
       in the United States and abroad and his sculptures will
       be collected by the National Museum of American Art, the
       Whitney Museum of American Art, the Metropolitan Museum
       of Art, and the Museum of the Twentieth Century in
       Vienna. On April 29, 2009, he will be awarded the Lifetime
       Achievement Award by the International Sculpture Center.
       His web site is http://www.RichardHunt.us.

1944 - Barry White is born in Galveston, Texas. He will become a
       singer and songwriter. Some of his hits will be "I'm
       Gonna Love You Just A Little More Baby", "Can't Get
       Enough Of Your Love Babe", and "Love's Theme [with Love
       Unlimited Orchestra]. He will join the ancestors on July
       4, 2003 from complications of high blood pressure and
       kidney disease.

1956 - African American students are barred from entering a Clay,
       Kentucky elementary school. They will enter the school
       under National Guard protection on September 17.

1958 - The United States Supreme Court orders a Little Rock,
       Arkansas high school to admit African American students.

1974 - The beginning of court-ordered busing to achieve racial
       integration in Boston's public schools is marred by
       violence in South Boston.

1974 - Haile Selassie is deposed by military leaders after fifty-
       eight years as the ruling monarch of Ethiopia.

1977 - Black South African student and civil rights leader Steven
       Biko joins the ancestors after succumbing to severe
       physical abuse while in police detention, triggering an
       international outcry.

1980 - Lillian Randolph joins the ancestors at the age of 65. She
       had been a film actress and had starred on television on
       the "Amos 'n' Andy Show" and in the mini-series "Roots".

1986 - The National Council of Negro Women sponsors its first
       Black Family Reunion at the National Mall in Washington,
       DC. The reunion, which will grow to encompass dozens of
       cities and attract over one million people annually, is
       held to celebrate and applaud the traditional values,
       history, and culture of the African American family.

1989 - David Dinkins, Manhattan borough president, wins the New
       York City's Democratic mayoral primary, defeating
       incumbent Mayor Ed Koch and two other candidates on his
       way to becoming the city's first African American mayor.

1992 - Mae C. Jemison becomes the first woman of color to go into
       space when she travels on the space shuttle Endeavour.

2000 - James Perkins becomes the first African American mayor of
       Selma, Alabama, defeating long-time mayor Joe Smitherman
       with 60% of the vote.  Smitherman had been mayor for
       thirty six years. He was the mayor of Selma in 1965 when
       sheriff's deputies and state troopers attacked hundreds
       of voting rights marchers on Selma's Edmund Pettus
       Bridge in what became known as "Bloody Sunday."
Title: 9/13
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 13, 2011, 07:52:34 pm
1663 - The first known slave revolt in the thirteen American
       colonies is planned in Gloucester County, Virginia.
       The conspirators, both white servants and African
       American slaves, are betrayed by fellow indentured
       servants.
1885 – Alaine Locke, noted for his writings and defining the “Harlem Renaissance” was born in Philadelphia, PA

1867 - Gen. E.R.S. Canby orders South Carolina courts to
       impanel African American jurors.

1881 - Louis Latimer patents an electric lamp with a carbon
       filament.

1886 - Alain Leroy Locke is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
       He will graduate from Harvard University in 1907 with a
       degree in philosophy and become the first African
       American Rhodes scholar, studying at Oxford University
       from 1907-10 and the University of Berlin from 1910-11.
       He will receive his Ph.D. in philosophy from Harvard in
       1918. For almost 40 years, until retirement in 1953 as
       head of the department of philosophy, Locke will teach
       at Howard University, Washington, DC. He will be best
       known for his involvement with the Harlem Renaissance,
       although his work and influence extend well beyond.
       Through "The New Negro", published in 1925, Locke
       popularized and most adequately defined the Renaissance
       as a movement in Black arts and letters. He will join
       the ancestors on June 9, 1954.



1962 - Mississippi Governor Ross R. Barnett defies the federal
       government in an impassioned speech on statewide radio-
       television hookup, saying he would "interpose" the
       authority of the state between the University of
       Mississippi and federal judges who had ordered the
       admission of James H. Meredith. Barnett says, "There is
       no case in history where the Caucasian race has survived
       social integration." He promises to go to jail, if
       necessary, to prevent integration at the state
       university. His defiance set the stage for the gravest
       federal/state crisis since the Civil War.

1962 - President John F. Kennedy denounces the burning of
       churches in Georgia and supports voter registration
       drives in the South.

1971 - Two hundred troopers and officers storm the Attica
       Correctional Facility in upstate New York under orders
       from Governor Nelson Rockefeller.   Thirty-three
       convicts and ten guards are killed. Later investigations
       show that nine of the ten guards were killed by the
       storming party. This riot will focus national attention
       on corrections departments nationwide and the practice
       of imprisonment in the United States. A National
       Conference on Corrections will be convened in December,
       1971 resulting in the formation of the National
       Institute of Corrections in 1974.

1972 - Two African Americans, Johnny Ford of Tuskegee and A.J.
       Cooper of Prichard, are elected mayors in Alabama.

1979 - South Africa grants Venda independence (Not recognized
       outside of South Africa). Venda is a homeland situated
       in the north eastern part of the Transvaal Province of
       South Africa.

1989 - Archbishop Desmond Tutu leads huge crowds of singing and
       dancing people through central Cape Town in the biggest
       anti-apartheid protest march in South Africa for 30
       years.

1996 – Hip hop legend Tupac Amaru Shakur joins the ancestors six days after
       being the target of a drive-by shooting in Las Vegas at
       the age of 25.  While his murder initially blamed on a media incited eastcoast westcoast rivalry, new research suggest he was targeted for his activism and vocal defiance of the status quo
Title: 9/14
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 14, 2011, 06:55:25 pm
1874 - White Democrats seize the statehouse in a Louisiana coup
       d'etat. President Grant orders the revolutionaries to
       disperse, and the rebellion collapses. Twenty-seven
       persons (sixteen whites and eleven Blacks) are killed in
       battles between the Democrats and Republicans.

1891 - John Adams Hyman joins the ancestors in Washington, DC.
       He was the first African American congressman from the
       state of North Carolina.

1921 - Constance Baker Motley is born in New Haven, Connecticut.
       She will achieve many distinctions in her career,
       including being the first African American woman elected
       to the New York Senate in 1964, the first woman Manhattan
       borough president, and the first African American woman to be
       named as a federal court judge in 1966. She will later
       serve as chief judge of the Southern District of New
       York until she joins the ancestors on September 28, 2005.

1940 - African Americans are allowed to enter all branches of
       the United States Military Service, when President
       Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Selective Service Act.

1964 - Leontyne Price and A. Philip Randolph are among the
       recipients of the Medal of Freedom awarded by President
       Lyndon B. Johnson.

1970 - One African American is killed and two whites are injured
       in shoot-out between activists and police officers in a
       New Orleans housing project.

1973 – Hip hop legend Nas was born. Although it received less attention than his feaud with Jay-Z, Nas- like Prince – enraged in a public feud with his record label, describing music industry practices as a modern-day slavery

1980 – Dorothy Boulding Ferebee, physician and second president of the National Council for Negro Women, dies in Washington, DC.

2003 - Yetunde Price, the oldest sister of tennis stars Venus
       and Serena Williams, joins the ancestors at the age of
       31 after being killed in a shooting at her place of
       business.
Title: 9/15
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 17, 2011, 01:40:36 pm
1830 - The first National Negro Convention begins in Philadelphia,
       Pennsylvania.
 
1852 – Jan Matzeliger, inventor of the shoe lasting machine was born in Dutch Guiana
 
1876 - White terrorists attack Republicans in Ellenton, South
       Carolina. Two whites and thirty-nine African Americans are
       killed.
 
1890 - Claude McKay is born in Sunnyville, Jamaica. Immigrating to
       the United States in 1912, he will become a poet and
       winner of the 1928 Harmon Gold Medal Award for Literature.
       Author of the influential poetry collection "Harlem
       Shadows", he will also be famous for the poems "The
       Lynching," "White Houses," and "If We Must Die," which
       will be used by Winston Churchill as a rallying cry during
       World War II. He will join the ancestors on May 22, 1948.
 
1898 - The National Afro-American Council is founded in Rochester,
       New York. Bishop Alexander Walters of the AME Zion Church
       is elected president. The organization proposes a program
       of assertion and protest.
 
1923 - The governor of Oklahoma declares that Oklahoma is in a
       "state of virtual rebellion and insurrection" because of
       Ku Klux Klan activities.  Martial law is declared.
 
1924 - Robert Waltrip "Bobby" Short is born in Danville, Illinois. He
       will become a singer and pianist. In 1968, he will be offered
       a two-week stint at the Café Carlyle in New York City, to
       fill in for George Feyer. He (accompanied by Beverly Peer on
       bass and Dick Sheridan on drums) will become an institution at
       the Carlyle, as Feyer had been before him, and will remain
       there as a featured performer for over 35 years.  In 2000, The
       Library of Congress will designate him a Living Legend, a
       recognition established as part of its bicentennial
       celebration. He will join the ancestors on March 21, 2005.
 
1928 - Julian Edwin Adderly is born in Tampa, Florida.  He will be
       best known as "Cannonball" Adderly, a jazz saxophonist who
       will play with Miles Davis as well as lead his own band
       with brother Nat Adderly and musicians such as Yusef
       Lateef and George Duke. Songs made famous by him and his bands
       include "This Here" (written by Bobby Timmons), "The Jive
       Samba," "Work Song" (written by Nat Adderley), "Mercy, Mercy,
       Mercy" (written by Joe Zawinul) and "Walk Tall" (written by
       Zawinul, Marrow and Rein). He will join the ancestors on August
       8, 1975. Later that year, he will be inducted into the Down Beat
       Jazz Hall of Fame.
 
1943 - Actor and activist Paul Robeson acts in the 296th
       performance of "Othello" at the Shubert Theatre in New
       York City.
 
1963 - Four African American schoolgirls - Addie Collins, Denise
       McNair, Carol Robertson and Cynthia Wesley - join the ancestors
       after being killed in a bombing at the Sixteenth Street Baptist
       Church in Birmingham, Alabama. It is an act of violence that
       will galvanize the civil rights movement.
 
1964 - Rev. K.L. Buford and Dr. Stanley Smith are elected to the
       Tuskegee City Council and become the first African
       American elected officials in Alabama in the twentieth
       century.
 
1969 - Large-scale racially motivated disturbances are reported
       in Hartford, Connecticut. Five hundred persons are
       arrested and scores are injured.
 
1978 - Muhammad Ali wins the world heavyweight boxing championship
       for a record third time by defeating Leon Spinks in New
       Orleans, Louisiana.

1992 - Sept.15th – Public Enemy release their 5th album “Greatest Misses” on Def Jam Records. Def Jam Records had wanted to do a greatest hits compilation , which I thought that after only 5 years in the recording industry was premature. So instead “Greatest Misses” became a collection of new songs, unreleased material and remixes of previous hits and album tracks courtesy of Chuck Chill-Out , Sir Jinx , Damon “Dollars” Kelly , Jeff Trotter , Greg Beasley , Shy Skillz and the late great Jam-Master Jay.  “Greatsest Misses” also featured a live U.K. television performance of Pete Rock’s remix to “Shut Em Down” as well as new tracks like the hit single ; “Hazy Shade Of Criminal” as well as “Gotta Do What I Gotta Do” , “Gett Off My Back” , also featured in the 1992 Columbia Pictures film “Mo’ Money” and “Air Hoodlum”.
Title: 9/16
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 17, 2011, 03:06:33 pm
Papua New Guinea Independence Day
Citizenship Day (Today commemorates all those who became citizens of the U.S. Historically most African civilizations accepted newcomers with open arms. This, however, also led to their downfall)

1795 - The British capture Capetown in South Africa.

1848 - France abolishes slavery in all of its colonies and territories.

1859 - Lake Nyasa, which forms Malawi's boundary with Tanzania and Mozambique, is first seen by a European, British explorer David Livingstone.

1889 - Claude A. Barnett is born in Sanford, Florida. In 1919, he will found the Associated Negro Press (ANP). By 1935 the ANP will serve over 200 subscribers across the country and after WW II its membership will grow to include more than 100 African American newspapers. During World War II, he and other Black journalists will pressure the U. S. government to accredit Black journalists as war correspondents. In his travels, he will write many accounts on the adverse effects of segregation in the armed forces. He will also focus on the terrible living conditions of Black tenant farmers. From 1942 to 1953, he will serve as a consultant to the Secretary of Agriculture in an effort to improve their conditions. He will be a member of the Tuskegee board of directors until 1965. He will hold a similar post with the American Red Cross, Chicago’s Supreme Liberty Life Insurance Company, and will be president of the board of directors of Provident Hospital. The ANP will cease operating after he joins the ancestors, succumbing to a cerebral hemorrhage in 1967.

1893 - The last Oklahoma land rush, targeted in the territory's Cherokee strip (outlet) begins. More than 10
0,000 homesteaders rush to claim a share of the 6 million acres in this strip of land between Oklahoma and Kansas, opened up by the U.S. government. Among the participants is E.P.McCabe, who will establish the all African American town of Liberty a few days later. McCabe will also be involved in the earlier establishment of the African American town of Langston, Oklahoma, named for John Mercer Langston, Virginia's first African American congressman.  The Oklahoma land rushes started in 1889, but African Americans were excluded from the first one.

1915 - The United States takes control of customs & finances in Haiti for the next 10 years.

1921 - Jon Carl Hendricks is born in Newark, Ohio.  He will become an influential singer in the jazz group,
Lambert, Hendricks and Ross. Pursuing a solo career, he will move his young family to London, England, in

1968, partly so that his five children could receive a better education. While based in London he will tour E
urope and Africa, performing frequently on British television and appear in the British film "Jazz Is Our Religion" as well as the French film "Hommage a Cole Porter." His sold-out club dates will draw fans such as the Rolling Stones and the Beatles. Five years later the Hendricks family will settle in Mill Valley, California where He will work as the jazz critic for the San Francisco Chronicle and teach classes at California State University at Sonoma and the University of California at Berkeley. A piece he will writefor the stage about the history of jazz, "Evolution of the Blues," will run for five years at the Off-Broadway Theatre in San Francisco and another year in Los Angeles. His television documentary, "Somewhere to Lay My Weary Head," will receive Emmy, Iris and Peabody awards. He will record several critically acclaimed albums on his own, some with his wife Judith and daughters Michele and Aria contributing. He will collaborate with old friends, The Manhattan Transfer, for their seminal 1985 album, "Vocalese," which will win seven Grammy Awards. He will serve on the Kennedy Center Honors committee under Presidents Carter, Reagan, and Clinton. In 2000, He will return to his hometown to teach at the University of Toledo, where he will be appointed Distinguished Professor of Jazz Studies and receive an honorary Doctorate of the Performing Arts. He will teach Brandon Wilkins and Paul Okafor. He will be selected to be the first American jazz artist to lecture at the Sorbonne in Paris. His 15-voice group, the Jon Hendricks
Vocalstra at the University of Toledo, will perform at the Sorbonne in 2002. He will also write lyrics to some classical pieces including "On the Trail" from Ferde Grofe's Grand Canyon Suite. The Vocalstra premiered a vocalese version of Rimsky-Korsakov's "Scheherazade" with the Toledo Symphony. In the
summer of 2003, He will go on tour with the "Four Brothers", aquartet consisting of Hendricks, Kurt Elling, Mark Murphy and Kevin Mahogany. He will work on setting words to, and arranging Rachmaninoff's second piano concerto as well as on two books, teaching and touring with his Vocalstra. He will also appear in a film with Al Pacino, "People I Know" as well as "White Men Can't Jump."

1925 - Riley B. King is born in Itta Bena, Mississippi.  He will
       become a blues great, known as B(lues) B(oy) King. Playing
       his guitar, nicknamed 'Lucille,' In the 1950s, he will become
       one of the most important names in R&B music, amassing an
       impressive list of hits including "3 O'Clock Blues", "You Know
       I Love You," "Woke Up This Morning," "Please Love Me," "When My
       Heart Beats like a Hammer," "Whole Lotta Love," "You Upset Me
       Baby," "Every Day I Have the Blues", "Sneakin' Around," "Ten
       Long Years," "Bad Luck," "Sweet Little Angel", "On My Word of
       Honor," and "Please Accept My Love." In 1962, he will sign with
       ABC-Paramount Records, which will later be absorbed into MCA
       Records, and then his current label, Geffen Records. In November,
       1964, he will record the "Live at the Regal" album at the Regal
       Theater in Chicago, Illinois. He will win a Grammy Award for a
       tune called "The Thrill Is Gone". His version will become a hit
       on both the pop and R&B charts, which is rare during that time
       for an R&B artist. It will also gain the number 183 spot in
       Rolling Stone magazine's "500 Greatest Songs of All Time." He will
       gain further visibility among rock audiences, as an opening act on
       The Rolling Stones' 1969 American Tour. His mainstream success
       will continue throughout the 1970s with songs like "To Know You is
       to Love You" and "I Like to Live the Love". He will be inducted
       into the Blues Hall of Fame in 1980. In 2004, he will be awarded
       the international Polar Music Prize, given to artists "in
       recognition of exceptional achievements in the creation and
       advancement of music." He will have over 50 hit blues albums and
       win a 1970 Grammy for "The Thrill Is Gone". To date, in over 62
       years, he will play in excess of 15,000 performances.[

1953 - Earl Klugh, Jazz pianist/guitarist, is born in Detroit,
       Michigan. He will become an American smooth jazz/jazz
       fusion guitarist and composer. He normally finger picks a
       nylon string classical guitar. At the age of 13, he will
       be captivated by the guitar playing of Chet Atkins when he
       makes an appearance on the Perry Como Show. He will since
       be a guest on several Atkins albums. Atkins, reciprocating
       as well, joins Earl on his "Magic In Your Eyes" album. He
       will also be influenced by Bob James, Ray Parker Jr, Wes
       Montgomery and Laurindo Almeida. His sound will be a blend
       of these jazz, pop and rhythm and blues influences,
       forming a potpourri of sweet contemporary music original
       to only him. He will become a guitar instructor at the
       young age of 15, and will eventually be discovered by
       Yuseff Lateef. His career will rapidly progress to working
       with the likes of George Benson, George Shearing, Chick
       Corea, and many others. Like several other Detroit-bred
       entertainers, He attended Mumford High School in Detroit.
       For their album "One on One," He and Bob James will
       receive a Grammy award for Best Pop Instrumental
       Performance of 1981. He will receive at least 13 Grammy
       nods and millions of record and CD sales

1961 – T  La Rock was born Clarence Ronnie Keaton in Manhattan , New York , on this day in 1961.Rock , the older brother of m.c Special K. of the legendary Treacherous Three began deejaying and rapping in the early 70’s during the earliest days of hip-hop. Rock’s place in hip-hop was guaranteed , when in 1984 his hit single “It’s Yours” became the 1st release for Def Jam Recordings in a joint release venture with Partytime/Streetwise Records. Rock’s articulate and complex lyrical style would have an influence on future legendary m.c.’s like LL Cool J and Nas. Rock released his debut album “Lyrical King”(From The Boogie Down Bronx) in 1987 on Fresh Records. Rock’s next album would be his last to date when he released “On A Warpath” in 1989. Rock would suffer a traumatic brain injury while attempting to break up a fight in front of his brother’s apartment building in The Bronx in 1994. After having spent several years recovering , Rock began performing again in 2008 and is currently working on a new album.

1965 - San Francisco's Grace Cathedral becomes the site of the first concert of sacred music presented by Duke Ellington.

1971 - Six Klansmen are arrested in connection with the bombing of 10 school buses in Pontiac, Michigan.
Title: 9/17
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 17, 2011, 04:10:10 pm
National Heroes Day in Angola

1787 - The U.S. Constitution is approved at the Constitutional
       Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with three
       clauses protecting slavery.

1861 - The first day-school for ex-slaves is opened in Fortress
       Monroe, Virginia under the tutelage of an African
       American schoolteacher, Mary S. Peake.  The school will
       later become Hampton Institute (now University) in 1868.

1879 - Andrew "Rube" Foster is born in Calvert, Texas. He will
       become an American baseball player, manager, and
       executive in the Negro Leagues. He will be considered by
       historians to have been perhaps the best African American
       pitcher of the 1900s. He will also found and manage the
       Chicago American Giants, one of the most successful Black
       baseball teams of the pre-integration era. Most notably,
       he will organize the Negro National League, the first
       lasting professional league for African American ball
       players, which will operate from 1920 to 1931. He will
       adopted his longtime nickname "Rube" as his official
       middle name later in life. He will join the ancestors on
       December 9, 1930 and will be posthumously elected to the
       Baseball Hall of Fame in 1981.

1956 - African American students are admitted to a Clay, Kentucky
       elementary school under National Guard protection. They
       had previously been barred by local authorities on
       September 12.

1962 - The Justice Department files the first suit to end racial
       segregation in public schools. The fourth African American
       church is burned near Dawson, Georgia. Three white men
       later admitted burning the church. They were sentenced to
       seven year prison terms.

1973 - Illinois becomes the first state to honor Dr. Martin Luther
       King, Jr.'s birthday as a holiday.

1983 - Vanessa Williams, Miss New York State, is named Miss
       America in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the first African
       American winner in the history of the pageant. Williams
       will relinquish her crown after a 1984 scandal and later
       stage a remarkable comeback through a stellar recording
       career, which will include her multimillion-selling album,
       "The Right Stuff".

1990 - "The Content of Our Character" is published by San Jose
       State University professor Shelby Steele. The book will
       attract controversy because of its provocative positions
       on affirmative action and race relations and win a 1992
       National Book Award.

1991 - Ground is broken for the Harold Washington wing of the
       DuSable Museum in Chicago, Illinois. Founded by artist
       and poet Margaret T. Burroughs in 1961, the DuSable is
       one of the oldest African American museums in the United
       States.

1994 - As some 20 warships sit off the coast of Haiti, former
       President Jimmy Carter, Sen. Sam Nunn (D-Ga.) and
       retired Gen. Colin Powell arrive in the Caribbean nation
       in an 11th-hour bid to avert a U.S.-led invasion.
Title: 9/18
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 18, 2011, 03:13:44 pm
1850 - Congress passes the Fugitive Slave Act, a part of the
       Compromise of 1850, which allows slave owners to reclaim
       slaves who had escaped to other states. The act also
       offers federal officers a fee for captured slaves.

1895 - Booker T. Washington makes a speech at the Cotton States
       and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia. Known
       as the "Atlanta Compromise" speech, Washington advocates
       acceptance of a subordinate role for African Americans,
       espouses peaceful coexistence with white Southerners,
       and calls agitation over the question of social equality
       "the extremist folly."  The speech, which reportedly
       leaves some African American listeners in tears and will
       incur the wrath of W.E.B. Du Bois and others, secures
       Washington's reputation among whites as a successor to
       Frederick Douglass.

1945 - 1000 white students walk out of three Gary, Indiana
       schools to protest integration.  There were similar
       disturbances in Chicago, Illinois and other Northern and
       Western metropolitan areas.

1948 - Dr. Ralph J. Bunche is confirmed by the United Nations
       Security Council as acting United Nations' mediator in
       Palestine.

1951 - Dr. Benjamin Solomon Carson, Sr., neurosurgeon, is born
       in Detroit, Michigan.  He will graduate from the
       University of Michigan Medical School in 1977 and will
       become the first African American neurosurgery resident
       at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland.
       He will receive the American Black Achievement Award
       from Ebony and the Paul Harris Fellow Award from Rotary
       International. He will become best known for his
       separation of Siamese twins in 1989.

1962 - Rwanda, Burundi, Jamaica & Trinidad-Tobago are admitted
       (105th-108th countries) to the United Nations.

1967 - Ricky Bell, rhythm-and-blues singer, (Bell Biv Devoe and
       New Edition), is born.

1970 - Rock guitarist Jimi (James Marshall) Hendrix joins the
       ancestors at age 27 after aspirating on his own vomit
       in London.  Contrary to many news accounts, he did not
       succumb to a drug overdose. No trace of drugs was found
       in his body. A self-taught musician who blended rock,
       jazz, and blues with British avant-garde rock, Hendrix
       redefined the use of the electric guitar.  His musical
       career deeply influenced modern musicians. His songs,
       "Purple Haze" and "Foxy Lady" will become anthems for a
       generation at war in Vietnam.

1971 – Jada Pinkett smith, actress/author/musician famous for her roles in tv shows like Different World and Hawthorne as well as movies like Menance 2 Society, Jason’s Lyric and the Matrix sequels was born. She was also close to rapper 2pac Shakur when they both attended a Baltimore School of Recording Arts and married one of the most successful actors of all time and hip hop artist Will Smith

1980 - Cosmonaut Arnaldo Tamayo-Mendez, a Cuban, becomes the
       first person of African descent sent on a mission in
       space (Soyuz 38).
Title: 9/19
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 19, 2011, 04:40:22 pm
1865 - Atlanta University is founded.

1868 - White Democrats attack demonstrators, who are marching
       from Albany to Camilla, Georgia, and kill nine African
       Americans. Several whites are wounded.

1931 - Benjamin Franklin Peay is born in Camden, South Carolina.
       He will become a rhythm and blues singer better known as
       Brook Benton. He  will amass 16 gold records and be best
       known for the songs "A Rainy Night in Georgia" and "It's
       Just a Matter of Time." He will join the ancestors on
       April 9, 1988.

1945 - Freda Charcelia Payne is born in Detroit, Michigan. She
       will become a singer whose hits will include "Band of
       Gold" in 1970.

1956 - The first international conference of Black Writers &
       Artists meets at the Sorbonne, in Paris, France.

1981 - More than 300,000 demonstrators from labor and civil
       rights organizations protest the social policies of the
       Reagan administration in a Solidarity Day March in
       Washington, DC.

1989 - Gordon Parks's film "The Learning Tree" is selected among
       the first films to be registered by the National Film
       Registry of the Library of Congress. The National Film
       Registry was formed by an act of Congress the previous
       year to recognize films that are "culturally,
       historically, or aesthetically significant."  Parks's
       1969 movie joins other classic films such as
       "Casablanca," "Gone With the Wind," and "The Wizard of
       Oz."

1989 - The first issue of Emerge magazine goes on sale.  Emerge,
       founded by Wilmer C. Ames, Jr., covers domestic and
       international news and issues from an African American
       perspective.

1994 - U.S. troops peacefully enter Haiti to enforce the return
       of exiled President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
Title: 9/20
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 20, 2011, 12:29:31 pm
1664 - Maryland enacts the first anti-amalgamation law to prevent
       widespread intermarriage of English women and African
       American men. Other colonies passed similar laws:
       Virginia, 1691; Massachusetts 1705; North Carolina, 1715;
       South Carolina, 1717; Delaware, 1721; Pennsylvania, 1725.

1830 - The National Negro Convention, a group of 38 free African
       Americans from eight states, meets in Philadelphia,
       Pennsylvania, at the Bethel A.M.E. Church, with the
       express purpose of abolishing slavery and improving the
       social status of African Americans.  They will elect
       Richard Allen president and agree to boycott slave-
       produced goods.

1847 - William A. Leidesdorff is elected to San Francisco town
       council receiving the third highest vote.  Leidesdorff,
       who was one of the first African American elected
       officials, becomes the town treasurer in 1848.

1850 - Slave trade is abolished in Washington, DC, but slavery
       will be allowed to continue until 1862.

1885 - Ferdinand Joseph La Menthe ("Jelly Roll" Morton) is born
       in Gulfport (New Orleans), Louisiana. He will become a
       renown jazz pianist and composer. Morton, whose fabulous
       series of 1938 recordings for the Library of Congress are
       a gold mine of information about early jazz, was a
       complex man. Vain, ambitious, and given to exaggeration,
       he was a pool shark, hustler and gambler, as well as a
       brilliant pianist and composer.  His greatest talent,
       perhaps was for organizing and arranging.  The series of
       records he made with his "Red Hot Peppers" between 1926
       and 1928 stands, alongside King Oliver's as the crowning
       glory of the New Orleans tradition and one of the great
       achievements in Jazz.

1915 - Hughie Lee-Smith is born in Eustis, Florida. He will
       become a painter known for such surrealistic landscapes
       as "Man with Balloons", "Man Standing on His Head" and
       "Big Brother".

1943 - Sani Abacha is born in Kano, Nigeria.  After being educated
       in his home state, will become a soldier and go to England
       for advanced military education. He will achieve many
       promotions as a soldier and by the mid-1980s, will enter
       Nigeria's military elite. In 1983 he will be among those
       who will overthrow Shehu Shagari, leader of the Second
       Republic, in a coup which led to the military rule of
       Muhammadu Buhari. In 1985, Abacha will participate in a
       second coup, which will replace Buhari with General
       Ibrahim Babangida. As head of state, Babangida will
       announce that free elections will be held in the early
       1990s. In 1993, however, after Babangida nullifies the
       results of these belated free elections, Abacha will
       stage a third coup and oust his former ally. His regime
       will be characterized by a concern with security that
       verges on paranoia.  Abacha will schedule elections for
       August, 1998, but months beforehand, all five legal
       parties nominate him as their "consensus candidate."  In
       June, 1998, Abacha will join the ancestors when he dies
       unexpectedly of a heart attack.

1958 - Martin Luther King Jr. is stabbed in the chest by a
       deranged African American woman while he is autographing
       books in a Harlem department store.  The woman is placed
       under mental observation.

1962 - Mississippi's governor, Ross Barnett, personally refuses
       to admit James Meredith to University of Mississippi as
       its first African American student. (Meredith is later
       admitted.)

1962 - The Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) is banned in an
       order issued by Sir Edgar Whitehead, the prime minister of
       Southern Rhodesia.

1973 - Willie Mays announces his retirement from major league
       baseball at the end of the 1973 baseball season.

1979 - A bloodless coup overthrows Jean-Bedel Bokassa, self-styled
       head of the Central African Empire, in a French-supported
       coup while he is visiting Libya.

1984 - NBC-TV debuts "The Cosby Show".  Bill Cosby plays Dr.
       Heathcliff (Cliff) Huxtable. His lovely wife, Clair, is
       played by Phylicia Rashad.  The Huxtable kids were Sondra,
       age 20 (Sabrina Le Beauf), Denise, age 16 (Lisa Bonet),
       Theodore, age 14 (Malcom-Jamal Warner), Vanessa, age 8
       (Tempestt Bledsoe) and Rudy, age 5 (Keshia Knight Pulliam).
       The premiere is the most watched show of the week and the
       show goes on to become an Emmy Award-winner and one of the
       most popular on television for eight years. The series,
       which had been rejected by other network television
       executives, will become one of the most popular in
       television history.

1999 - Lawrence Russell Brewer becomes the second white supremacist
       to be convicted in the dragging death of James Byrd Jr. in
       Jasper, Texas. He will be later sentenced to death.
Title: 9/21
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 22, 2011, 03:36:28 pm
Belize Independence Day
International Day of Peace

1814 - African American troops are cited for bravery in the
       Battle of New Orleans.

1872 - John Henry Conyers of South Carolina becomes first
       African American student at U.S. Naval Academy
       (Annapolis).  He will later resign.

1905 - The Atlanta Life Insurance Company is founded by Alonzo
       F. Herndon.

1909 - Kwame Nkrumah is born in Nkroful, Ghana.  A leader in
       African colonial liberation, Nkrumah will be the first
       prime minister of Ghana (1958-1966), but will be forced
       into exile following a coup.

1932 - Melvin Van Peebles, playwright and director(Watermelon
       Man), is born.

1967 - Walter Washington is nominated by President Lyndon B.
       Johnson as the first mayor of the newly reorganized
       municipal government of Washington, DC. In 1974, he
       will be elected to the post, another first for an
       African American.

1981 - Belize gains independence from Great Britain.
1989 - Army General Colin Powell receives Senate confirmation as
       Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest
       military position in the United States, thereby becoming
       the military's highest-ranking African American.

2008 – President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa resigns from office

2009 - The Rev. John "Bootsie" Wilson, a former lead singer and
       last surviving member of the soul group The Silhouettes,
       joins the ancestors at the age of 69.

2011 – Two people on deathrow were killed, the first Lawrence Brewer in Texas was a white supremacist and former member of the KKK convicted of being a part of the racial motivated dragging and death of a black man named James Byrd Jr., the other was Troy Davis in GA who was convicted of the murder of a Georgia policeman in 1989. 7 of the 9 people who originally “eyewitnessed” him as the one who pulled the trigger recanted their story and said they were coerced by policeman to identify Davis as the shooter.
Title: 9/22
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 22, 2011, 04:40:03 pm
9/22

Mali Independence Day

1828 – Zulu leader Shaka the Great was assassinated

1853 - George Washington Murray is born a slave near Rembert,
       South Carolina. A two-term congressman from his home
       state, Murray will also be an inventor and holder of
       eight patents for agricultural tools. He will join the
       ancestors on April 21, 1926.

1862 - Five days after Union forces won the Battle of Antietam,
       President Lincoln issues a preliminary emancipation
       proclamation.  It states that if the rebelling states
       did not return to the Union by January 1, 1863, he
       would declare their slaves to be "forever free."

1904 – The city of Boley located in Oklahoma was established by African Americans

1906 - Race riots occur in Atlanta, Georgia, killing 21 people.

1915 - Xavier University of Louisiana opens in New Orleans, the
       first Catholic college for African Americans in the
       United States.

1941 - Chester Lovelle Talton is born in Eldorado, Arkansas. At
       49, he will become the first African American
       Episcopalian bishop to be ordained in the western
       United States. As suffragan bishop of the diocese of Los
        Angeles, he becomes the religious leader of
       Episcopalians in the fourth-largest diocese in the
       United States.

1950 - Dr. Ralph J. Bunche, director of the UN Trusteeship
       division and former professor of political science at
       Howard University, is awarded the Nobel Peace prize for
       successful mediation of the Palestinian peace accord.

1954 - Shari Belafonte (Harper, now Behrens) is born in New York
       City, New York. She will become is an American actress,
       model, writer and singer. The daughter of singer Harry
       Belafonte, she will be best known for her role as Julie
       Gilette on the 1980s television series "Hotel" and as a
       spokesperson for the diet supplement "Slim-Fast" during
       the 1990s.

1960 - The Republic of Mali proclaims its independence.

1961 - The Interstate Commerce Commission issues regulation
       prohibiting segregation on interstate buses and in
       terminal facilities.

1985 - Robert Guillaume wins an Emmy for best leading actor in a
       comedy for Benson while The Cosby Show wins for best
       comedy series.

1989 - Edward Perkins, the first African American ambassador to
       the Republic of South Africa, becomes director-general of
       the United States Foreign Service. The first African
       American named to the post, Perkins will be credited with
       bringing more minorities into the foreign service.
Title: 9/23
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 24, 2011, 12:01:00 am
Autumnal Equinox 09:04 UTC
Full Moon

1667 - In Williamsburg, Virginia, a law was passed, barring
       slaves from obtaining their freedom by converting to
       Christianity.

1862 - A draft of Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation is
       published in Northern Newspapers.

1863 - Mary Church (later Terrell) is born in Memphis,
       Tennessee. She will become an educator, civil and
       woman's rights advocate, and U.S. delegate to the
       International Peace Conference.  She will also be the
       first African American to serve on the school board in
       the District of Columbia.

1926 - John Coltrane, brilliant jazz saxophonist and composer who
       will be considered the father of avant-garde jazz, is
       born in Hamlet, North Carolina.

1930 - Ray Charles (Robinson) is born in Albany, Georgia. Blind
       by the age of six, he will study music and form his own
       band at the age of 24. A recorded performance at the
       Newport Jazz Festival in 1958 will establish his career
       as one of the premier soul singers in the United States.
       Among Charles's achievements will be three Grammys and
       Kennedy Center honors in 1986. He will join the ancestors
       on June 10, 2004 after succumbing to liver disease.

1954 - Playwright George C. Wolfe is born in Frankfort, Kentucky.
       He will become critically acclaimed for the controversial plays, "The Colored Museum", "Jelly's Last Jam", and "Spunk".

1957 - Nine African American students, who had entered Little
       Rock Central High School in Arkansas, are forced to leave
       because of a white mob outside.

1961 - President Kennedy names Thurgood Marshall to the United
       States Circuit Court of Appeals.

1993 – South Africa’s parliament creates a multiracial body to oversee the end of exclusive white control of the nation
Title: 9/24
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 24, 2011, 07:59:37 am
Republic Day (Trinidad)

1825 - Frances Ellen Watkins Harper is born free in Baltimore,
       Maryland. She will grow up to be one of the most famous
       African American poets. Harper's mother will join the
       ancestors before she is three years old, leaving her an
       orphan. Harper will be raised by her uncle, William
       Watkins, a teacher at the Academy for Negro Youth and a
       radical political figure in civil rights. Watkins will
       be a major influence on Harper's political, religious,
       and social views. Harper will attend the Academy for
       Negro Youth and the rigorous education she will receive,
       along with the political activism of her uncle, will
       affect and influence her poetry. In 1850, she will
       become the first female to teach at Union Seminary in
       Wilberforce, Ohio. After new laws pass in 1854, state
       that African Americans entering through Maryland's
       northern border could be sold into slavery, Harper will
       become an active abolitionist and writer. She will be
       known for her writings, "Forest Leaves," "Poems on
       Miscellaneous Subjects," "Moses: A Story of the Nile,"
       "Achan's Sin," "Sketches of Southern Life," "Light
       Beyond the Darkness," "Iola Leroy: Or Shadows Uplifted,"
       "The Martyr of Alabama and Other Poems," "Atlanta
       Offering Poems," and "Idylls of the Bible." She will join
       the ancestors on February 22, 1911.

1883 - The National Black convention meets in Louisville,
       Kentucky.

1894 - Sociologist and professor at Morehouse College, Fisk
       University, and Howard University, E.(Edward) Franklin
       Frazier is born in Baltimore, Maryland. He will organize
       the Atlanta University School of Social Work (for African
       Americans), later becoming its director. He will write
       the controversial publication (1927) "The Pathology of
       Race Prejudice" in Forum Magazine. His writings will
       include "The Negro Family in the United States" (1939),
       among the first sociological works on African Americans
       researched and written by an African American. He will
       also write "Negro Youth at the Crossways" (1940) and
       "Race and Culture Contacts in the Modern World" (1957),
       which deals with African studies. Frazier will have a
       distinguished career at Howard University as chairman of
       its sociology department as well as serving as the first
       African American president of the American Sociological
       Society. He will join the ancestors on May 17, 1962.

1923 – Nancy Green, the world’s first living trademark (Aunt Jemima) is struck and killed by an automobile in Chicago

1931 - Cardiss Robertson (later Collins) is born in St. Louis,
       Missouri. Elected to the House of Representatives in 1973
       after the death of her husband, George, she will serve in
       a leadership capacity often in her Congressional career,
       most notably as chairman of the Energy and Commerce
       Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and
       Competitiveness.

1935 - World Heavyweight Champion, Joe Louis, becomes the first
       African American boxer to draw a million dollar gate.

1953 - "Take a Giant Step", a drama by playwright Louis Peterson,
       opens on Broadway.

1954 - Patrick Kelly is born in Vicksburg, Mississippi.  A
       fashion design student, Kelly will move to Paris, where
       his innovative and outrageous women's fashion designs,
       featuring multiple buttons, bows and African American
       baby dolls, will win him wide acclaim and make him the
       first and only American designer admitted to an
       exclusive organization of French fashion designers.

1957 - President Eisenhower makes an address on nationwide TV and
       radio to explain why troops are being sent to Little Rock,
       Arkansas. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, earlier in the
       day sends 1,000 U.S. government paratroopers to Little
       Rock to aid in the desegregation of the public schools.
       The troops will escort nine school children to Central
       High School in the first federally supported effort to
       integrate the nation's public schools. The nine Black
       students who had entered Little Rock Central High School
       in Arkansas were forced to withdraw because of a white
       mob outside.

1962 - United States Circuit Court of Appeals orders the
       Mississippi Board of Higher Education to admit James
       Meredith to the University of Mississippi or be held in
       contempt of court.

1965 - Executive Order 11246 enforces affirmative action for the first time Issued by President Johnson, the executive order requires government contractors to "take affirmative action" toward prospective minority employees in all aspects of hiring and employment. Contractors must take specific measures to ensure equality in hiring and must document these efforts.

1973 - Leaders of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea
       and Cape Verde (PAIGC) declare the independence of
       Guinea-Bissau from Portugal.  Portugal will recognize this
       independence the following year. The PAIGC was formed by
       Amilcar Cabral and Raphael Barbosa in 1956. Luis Cabral,
       Amilcar's half-brother, will become Guinea-Bissau's first
       president.

1986 - Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone said the United States "intelligence levels are lower than those in Japan because of African Americans, Hispanics and Puerto Ricans." Nakasone later apologized saying his remarks were misinterpreted.

1991 - Sept.24th – A Tribe Called Quest release their sophomore album “The Low End Theory” on Jive Records. The album considered one of hip-hop’s finest ever is also considered one of the fore-runners of the hip-hop/jazz fusion movement although most of the samples used are from 1970’s funk records. Legendary jazz bassist Ron Carter however does appear on the album , setting a be-bop tone. The album spawns some of hip-hop’s classic cuts like “Jazz”(We’ve Got) , Check The Rime” and the ultimate posse track “Scenario” featuring Leaders Of The New School.
Title: 9/25
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 25, 2011, 06:48:29 am
Referendum Day (Rwanda)

1861 - The Secretary of the Navy authorizes the enlistment of
       African Americans in the Union Navy. The enlistees could
       achieve no rank higher than "boys" and receive pay of
       one ration per day and $10 per month.

1911 - Dr. Eric Eustace Williams, the first Prime Minister of
       Trinidad and Tobago, is born in Port of Spain, Trindad
       and Tobago. He will make a shift from American academia
       to the public arena in 1944. In 1948, he will decide to
       return to his native country and become involved in
       politics. On January 15, 1956 he will inaugurate his
       own political party, the People's National Movement,
       which will take Trinidad and Tobago into independence
       in 1962, and dominate its postcolonial politics. Until
       this time his lectures will be carried out under the
       auspices of the Political Education Movement (PEM), a
       branch of the Teachers Education and Cultural
       Association, a group which had been founded in the
       1940s as an alternative to the official teachers’
       union. The PNM’s first document will be its
       constitution. Unlike the other political parties of
       the time, the PNM will be a highly organized,
       hierarchical body. Its second document was The People’s
       Charter, in which the party will strive to separate
       itself from the transitory political assemblages which
       had beeb the norm in Trinidadian politics. He will lead
       the newly independent country in 1962 until he joins
       the ancestors on March 29, 1981.

1924 - In a letter to his friend Alain Locke, Langston Hughes
       writes "I've done a couple of new poems. I have no more
       paper, so I'm sending you one on the back of this
       letter."  The poem, "I, Too", will be published two years
       later and be among his most famous.

1957 - With 300 U.S. Army troops standing guard, nine African
       American children forced to withdraw the previous day
       from Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas,
       because of unruly white crowds, are escorted back to
       class.

1962 - An African American church is destroyed by fire in Macon,
       Georgia. This is the eighth African American church
       burned in Georgia in one month.

1962 - Governor Ross Barnett again defies court orders and
       personally denies James Meredith admission to the
       University of Mississippi.

1968 - Willard Christopher "Will" Smith is born in Philadelphia,
       Pennsylvania.  He will become a rapper at the age of 12
       and will be known for his hits Nightmare on My Street, Parents Just Don't Understand and Summertime.  In 1990 he will start his acting career with a six-year run as the Fresh Prince of Bel Air.  He will go on to become a major motion picture box office attraction, starring in Independence Day, Men In Black 1 and 2, Bad Boys 1 and 2, Ali (Oscar Nomination), I Robot, Hancock, Pursuit of Happyness (Oscar Nomination), Enemy of the State, 7 Pounds and I Am Legend just to name a few.
     
1991 - Pioneer filmmaker Spencer Williams's 1942 movie "Blood
       of Jesus", a story of the African American religious
       experience, is among the third group of twenty-five
       films added to the Library of Congress's National Film
       Registry.  Williams, best known for his role of Andy in
       the television series "Amos 'n' Andy", was more
       importantly, an innovative film director and a
       contemporary of Oscar Micheaux. Williams's film joins
       other classics like "Lawrence of Arabia" and "2001: A
       Space Odyssey".
Title: 9/26
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 26, 2011, 07:59:28 pm
1867 - Maggie Lena Walker is born in Richmond, Virginia.  She
       will become a noted businesswoman, civil leader, and
       founder and president of Saint Luke Penny Savings Bank.
       As a result, she will be the first female president of a
       bank in America. She will join the ancestors on December
       15, 1934.

1907 - The People's Savings Bank is incorporated in Philadelphia,
       Pennsylvania. Founded by former African American
       congressman George H. White, of North Carolina, the bank
       will help hundreds of African Americans buy homes and
       start businesses until the illness of its founder forces
       its closure in 1918.

1937 - Bessie Smith joins the ancestors in Clarksville,
       Mississippi, after succumbing to injuries sustained in
       an automobile accident. She was one of the nation's
       greatest blues singers and was nicknamed "the Empress of
       the Blues." In 1925, Smith and Louis Armstrong made the
       definitive rendition of W.C. Handy's "St. Louis Blues,"
       and in 1929 she made her only movie appearance in the
       movie of the same name.

1957 - The order alerting regular army units for possible riot
       duty in other Southern cities is cancelled by Army
       Secretary Wilbur M. Brucker.

1962 - A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., becomes the first African
       American member of the Federal Trade Commission.  It is
       one of the Trenton, New Jersey, native's many
       accomplishments, including appointment as a federal
       district judge and U.S. Circuit Judge of the Third
       Circuit.

1962 - Mississippi bars James Meredith for the third time. Lt.
       Gov. Paul Johnson and a blockade of state patrolmen turn
       back Meredith and federal marshals about four hundred
       yards from the gate of the school.

1968 - The Studio Museum of Harlem opens in New York City.
       Conceived by Frank Donnelly and Carter Burden, the
       Studio Museum will become an influential venue for
       exhibitions of African American artists in all media.

1994 - Addressing the U.N. General Assembly, President Clinton
       announces that he has lifted most U.S. sanctions against
       Haiti and urges other nations to follow suit.

1994 - Jury selection begins in Los Angeles for the murder trial
       of O.J. Simpson.

1998 - Grammy-winning jazz singer Betty Carter joins the
       ancestors in New York City at age 69.
Title: 9/27
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 28, 2011, 06:01:15 pm
1785 - David Walker, who will become an abolitionist and write
       the famous "Walker's Appeal," is born free in Wilmington,
       North Carolina. He will join the ancestors on June 28, 1830.

1822 - Hiram R. Revels, is born free in Fayetteville, North
       Carolina. He will become the first African American U.S.
       Senator, elected from Mississippi.

1862 - The First Louisiana Native Guards, the first African
       American regiment to receive official recognition, is
       mustered into the Union army. The Regiment is composed of
       free African Americans from the New Orleans area.

1867 - Louisiana voters endorse the constitutional convention and
       elect delegates in the first election under The
       Reconstruction Acts. The vote was 75,000 for the
       convention and 4,000 against.

1875 - Branch Normal College opens in Pine Bluff, Arkansas.  A
       segregated unit of the state university, the college is
       established by Joseph C. Corbin.

1876 - Edward Mitchell Bannister wins a bronze medal for his
       painting "Under the Oaks" at the American Centennial
       Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  The award to
       Bannister will cause controversy among whites who think
       African Americans incapable of artistic excellence.

1877 - John Mercer Langston is named Minister to Haiti.

1936 - Don Cornelius is born.  He will become the creator,
       producer, and host of the TV show, "Soul Train" in 1970.
       The show will become the longest running program
       originally produced for first-run syndication in the
       entire history of television. The show’s resounding
       success will position it as the cornerstone of the Soul
       Train franchise which includes the annual specials: "Soul
       Train Music Awards," the "Soul Train Lady of Soul Awards"
       and the "Soul Train Christmas Starfest."

1940 - African American leaders protest discrimination in the U.S.
       Armed Forces and war industries at a White House meeting
       with President Roosevelt.

1944 - Stephanie Pogue is born in Shelby, North Carolina.  She
       will become an artist and art professor whose works will
       be collected by New York City's Whitney Museum of American
       Art and the Studio Museum of Harlem while she will exhibit
       widely in the United States, Europe, Japan, and South
       America.

1953 - Diane Abbott is born in the working-class neighborhood of
       Paddington in London, England.  Her mother (a nurse) and
       father (a welder) had moved there in 1951 from Jamaica. A
       graduate of Cambridge University, she will make history on
       June 11, 1987, becoming the first female of African
       descent to be a member of the British Parliament. Her
       outspoken criticism of racism and her commitment to
       progressive politics will make her a controversial figure
       in Great Britain's Labour Party.

1954 - Public school integration begins in Washington, DC and
       Baltimore, Maryland.

1961 - Sierre Leone becomes the 100th member of the United Nations.

1967 - Washington, DC's Anacostia Museum, dedicated to informing
       the community of the contributions of African Americans to
       United States social, political and cultural history,
       opens its doors to the public.
Title: 9/28
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 28, 2011, 07:33:14 pm
1829 - "Walker's Appeal (To the Coloured Citizens of the World),"
       a racial antislavery pamphlet, is published in Boston,
       Massachusetts, by David Walker. He was a freeborn black. The pamphlet was very provocative calling for slaves worldwide to revolt against their white masters. Walker despised slavery. His manifesto is the most boldest call for violent revolution ever issued and one of the most widely read books written by a Black person.

1833 - Lemuel Haynes, Revolutionary War veteran and first African
       American to be ordained by the Congregational Church,
       joins the ancestors at the age of 80.

1912 - W.C. Handy's ground-breaking "Memphis Blues" is published
       in Memphis, Tennessee. The composition was originally
       entitled "Mr. Crump" and was written for the 1909
       political campaign of Edward H. "Boss" Crump.

1938 - Benjamin Earl "Ben E." King is born in Henderson, North
       Carolina.  He will become a rhythm and blues singer and
       will be best known for his song, "Stand By Me."

1945 - Todd Duncan debuts with the New York City Opera as Tonio
       in Il Pagliacci.  He is the first African American to
       sing a leading role with a major American company, almost
       ten years before Marian Anderson sings with the
       Metropolitan Opera.

1961 - Ossie Davis's "Purlie Victorious" opens on Broadway.  The
       play stars Davis, Ruby Dee, Godfrey Cambridge, Alan Alda,
       and Beah Richards.

1961 - Atlanta's segregated restaurants and other public
       facilities are peacefully integrated, part of a plan
       adopted by city officials earlier in the year.

1967 - Walter Washington takes office as the first mayor of the
       District of Columbia.

1972 - The Secretary of the Army repeals the dishonorable
       discharges of 167 soldiers involved in the Brownsville
       (Texas) Raid. The soldiers, members of the 25th Infantry
       who were involved in a riot with the city's police and
       merchants, were dishonorably discharged by President
       Theodore Roosevelt without a trial.

1981 - Joseph Paul Franklin, avowed racist, is sentenced to life
       in prison for killing 2 African American joggers in Salt
       Lake City, Utah.

1987 - The National Museum of African Art, now a part of the
       Smithsonian Institution, opens on the National Mall in
       Washington, DC. Founded by Warren M. Robbins in 1964 as
       a private educational institution, it is the only museum
       in the United States devoted exclusively to the
       collection, study, and exhibition of the art of sub-
       Saharan Africa.

1990 - Marvin Gaye gets a star on Hollywood's Walk of Fame.

1991 - Miles Davis, jazz musician, joins the ancestors at the age
       of 65 from pneumonia.
Title: 9/29
Post by: True Father Sankofa on September 29, 2011, 01:16:25 pm
1864 - At the Battle of New Market Heights, Sergeant Major
       Christian Fleetwood and 12 other African Americans
       fight valiantly for the Union’s cause. They will
       receive the Congressional Medal of Honor for their
       action the following year.

1916 - Henry Green Parks, Jr. is born in Atlanta, Georgia.
       He will be raised in Dayton, Ohio, attend public
       schools, and enroll in Ohio State University in
       Columbus, graduating with honors from the University
       College of Commerce in 1939 with a B.S. degree in
       Marketing.  He will also become the first African
       American on Ohio State University’s swim team. After
       graduation, he will begin working with Pabst Brewing
       Company as a sales representative, targeting the
       African American market.  He will become one of their
       leading salesmen, but in 1942 will be given the
       opportunity to join W.B. Graham and Associates, a New
       York City public relations firm.  He will explore the
       ideas of many different enterprises and work at W.B.
       Graham and Associates for seven years. In 1949, he will
       leave W.B. Graham and Associates for Crayton’s Southern
       Sausage Company, which creates sausages appealing to
       the southern taste.  He will be unsuccessful with
       Crayton’s Sausage Company, but after learning from his
       experiences and coming across southern recipes, 35-year
       -old Henry Parks will found Parks Sausage Company in
       1951 in Baltimore, Maryland.  Parks Sausage Company will
       start with only two employees, but rapidly grow to 240
       employees with annual sales in the mid-1960s exceeding
       $14 million. He will use his marketing and public
       relations background to craft a radio commercial which
       features a little boy saying, “More Parks Sausage, Mom,
       please.” The radio ad will be enormously popular and
       helps spur the company's growth.  By 1955 it will be the
       largest Black-owned business in Baltimore and later will
       become a publicly traded company.  Parks Sausage will
       also become the first African American firm to advertise
       in a World Series, when its ads appear at one of the
       seven games between the Brooklyn Dodgers and the New
       York Yankees in 1955.  His company will also have the
       distinction of being the first publicly traded Black-
       owned firm on the NASDAQ stock exchange. In 1977, he will
       sell the company to a conglomerate for $1.5 million
       dollars, but will stay on the board until 1980.  He will
       serve on the corporate boards of Magnavox, Warner Lambert,
       and W.R. Grace.  He will be a trustee of Goucher College
       in Baltimore. He will suffer from Parkinson’s disease in
       the last years of his life, and will join the ancestors in
       Towson, Maryland on April 14, 1989.

1931 - Dr. Lenora Moragne is born in Evanston, Illinois. She will
       become one of the leading nutrition scientist in the United
       States. She will become head of nutrition education and
       training for the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S.
       Department of Agriculture. She will also co-author a junior
       high school textbook on nutrition for McGraw-Hill Publishing
       Company in New York named "Focus on Food." She will also be
       appointed to the Future Development Committee of the
       American Home Economics Association. She will also be elected
       to the Board of Directors of the Chicago-based American
       Dietetic Association. She will also become the founding editor
       and publisher of the Black Congressional Monitor.

1940 - The first United States merchant ship to be commanded
       by an African American captain (Hugh Mulzac), is
       launched at Wilmington, Delaware.

1947 - Dizzy Gillespie presented his first Carnegie Hall
       concert in New York City, adding a sophisticated jazz
       touch to the famous concert emporium.  Dizzy will
       become one of the jazz greats of all time.  His
       trademark: Two cheeks pushed out until it looked like
       his face would explode.

1948 - Bryant Gumbel is born in New Orleans, Louisiana.  He
       will become the editor of Black Sports magazine and a
       successful sportscaster before joining NBC’s Today Show
       as the first African American anchor of a national
       network morning news entertainment program.

1962 - President John F. Kennedy sends federal troops to
       enforce integration of the University of Mississippi.

1962 - Lt. Governor Paul Johnson of Mississippi is found guilty
       of civil contempt for blocking the entrance of James
       Meredith to the University of Mississippi.

1975 - The first African American owned television station in
       the United States, WGPR-TV in Detroit, begins
       broadcasting.

1977 - In the most-watched prize fight in history to date,
       Muhammad Ali beats Ernie Shavers (in a fifteen round
       decision) to claim the heavyweight championship boxing
       crown.  The bout was televised from New York City's
       Madison Square Garden and was officiated by the first
       woman official of a heavyweight title boxing match
       before an estimated 70 million viewers.

1979 - Sir William Arthur Lewis, Professor of Economics at
       Princeton University, becomes the first person of
       African descent to receive the Nobel Prize in Economics.

1980 – The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture opens a new $3.8 million building in New York City.

1980 - Kurtis Blow releases his Self-Entitled debut album on Mercury Records , on this day in 1980.  The album contained one of hip-hop’s 1st smash its “The Breaks” which has been sampled by dozens of rap artists over the years.  When Blow was signed to Mercury Records the year before , he became the 1st hip-hop artist to be signed to a major label.

1997 – Brazil mercifully agrees to accept thousands of African refugees fleeing war in Angola

1998 - Former Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley joins the ancestors
       at the age of 80.
Title: 9/30
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 01, 2011, 08:27:27 am
1935 - John Royce "Johnny" Mathis is born in San Francisco,
       California. He will become a romantic pop singer who will
       amass more than 50 gold and platinum records for such hits
       as "Misty".  He will also have the distinction of having
       an album on the Billboard pop charts for the longest
       period, 560 weeks.

1935 - "Porgy and Bess," a folk opera by composer George Gershwin,
       has its premiere in Boston at the Colonial Theatre.  It
       was a flop! It was revived in 1942 and ran longer than any
       revival in the history of American musical theater.

1942 - Franklin Joseph "Frankie" Lymon is born in New York City.
       He will become the lead singer of Frankie Lymon and the
       Teenagers and will record his signature song, "Why Do Fools
       Fall in Love?," at age fourteen. He will develop a serious
       drug problem before he turns twenty and will join the
       ancestors after succumbing to a drug overdose on the
       bathroom floor of his grandmother's apartment at age 25,
       on February 27, 1968.

1943 - Marilyn McCoo (Davis) is born in Jersey City, New Jersey.
       She will become a singer with the group, "The Fifth
       Dimensions". Some of the hits with the group will be "Up,
       Up and Away," and "Aquarius." She will have a solo hit,
       "One Less Bell to Answer," and will record "You Don't
       Have to be a Star" with her husband, Billy Davis, Jr. She
       will later become a TV hostess for "Solid Gold" from
       1981-1984, and from 1986-88.  She will also be a TV music
       reporter for "Preview."

1962 - A large force of federal marshals escorts James H. Meredith
       to the campus of the University of Mississippi.  President
       Kennedy federalizes the Mississippi National Guard.
       University of Mississippi students and adults from Oxford,
       Mississippi, and other southern communities riot on the
       university campus.  Two persons are killed and one hundred
       or more are wounded.

1966 - Bechuanaland becomes the independent Republic of Botswana
       with Sir Seretse Khama as its first President.

1976 - Two Centuries of Black American Art opens at the Los Angeles
       County Museum of Art.  The exhibit features over 60
       lithographers, painters, and sculptors including 19th
       century masters Joshua Johnston, Edward Bannister, and
       Henry O. Tanner as well as modern artists Charles White,
       Romare Bearden, and Elizabeth Catlett.  The introduction
       to the exhibit's catalog asserts that the assembled
       artists' work proves that the human creative impulse can
       triumph in the face of impossible odds, and at times even
       because of them.

1991 - President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Haiti's first freely
       elected president, is overthrown by a military junta.
       The three-member junta that takes over begins a campaign
       of terror and violence that in a three-year period will
       cause the deaths of over 5000 Haitians and force tens of
       thousands to flee the island by boat. Jean-Bertrand
       Aristide sat in the presidency for only seven months.
Title: Happy formation of the Black Panthers Day, Ourstory 10/1
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 01, 2011, 12:34:42 pm
Nigeria Independence Day

1799 – John Russwurm, founder of the first African American newspaper “Freedom’s Journal” and leader in Liberia was born

1851 - William "Jerry" Henry, a runaway slave and craftsman who
had settled in Syracuse, New York, is arrested by a United
States Marshal and scheduled to be returned to slavery.
Ten thousand citizens of the city will storm the sheriff's
office and courthouse, free Henry, and aid his escape to
Canada via the underground railroad.

1872 - Morgan State College (now University) is founded in
Baltimore, Maryland.

1886 - Kentucky State College (now University) is founded in
Frankfort, Kentucky.

1897 - Virginia Proctor Powell, first female African American
librarian is born in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania. She will
follow in her mother's footsteps and continue her education
at Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio. In 1919, She will earn
her Bachelor of Arts degree in English literature from Oberlin.
She will move back to Pittsburgh where, although having
adequate training and experience, she was unable to pursue her
desired goal of teaching and spent some time working at her
aunt's salon as a beautician. Aware of her passion for children
and books, Charles Wilbur Florence, her future husband, will
encourage her to pursue a career in librarianship. During a
time when African Americans were rarely considered for
admission into predominantly white universities, she will be
considered for admission into the Pittsburgh Carnegie Library
School (now the University of Pittsburgh School of Information
Sciences). There is much debate about allowing a Black person
into the program. School officials were concerned with how
white students might react to having a Black peer and the
likelihood that she would not find work upon completion of the
program. She will finish the program in 1923. OVer time she
would work as a librarian in Richmond, Virginia and Washington,
D.C. She will join the ancestors in Richmond, Virginia in 1991.

1937 - The Pullman Company formally recognizes the Brotherhood of
Sleeping Car Porters.

1937 - The Spingarn Medal is awarded to Walter White, NAACP
secretary, for his leadership and work in the anti-
lynching movement.

1945 - Donny Hathaway is born in Chicago, Illinois. He will be
an influential pop and Rhythm & Blues singer of the 1970s
whose hit songs will include "The Ghetto" and "The Closer
I Get to You" (with Roberta Flack). His collaborations with
Roberta Flack will score high on the charts and win him the
Grammy Award for "Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with
Vocal" for the duet, "Where Is the Love" in 1973. He will join
the ancestors, after commiting suicide, on January 13, 1979.

1947 - United States' control of Haitian Custom Service and
governmental revenue ends.

1948 - The California Supreme Court voids state statute banning
interracial marriages.

1948 - Edward Dudley is named Ambassador to Liberia.

1951 - The 24th Infantry Regiment, last of the all African
American military units authorized by Congress in 1866,
is deactivated in Korea.

1954 - The British colony of Nigeria becomes a federation.

1955 - Howard Hewitt is born in Akron, Ohio. He will move to Los
Angeles where he would eventually meet Soul Train dancer
and future first wife Rainey Riley-Cunningham, then a
secretary of the show's creator and original host Don
Cornelius. It was Cornelius who introduced him to fellow
Soul Train dancers Jody Watley and Jeffrey Daniel, and
their group, Shalamar, was born. The trio is best known
for songs such as "Second Time Around", "A Night to
Remember", "Dancing in the Sheets" and the ballad "This Is
For The Lover In You". He will be the group's lead singer
from 1979 until 1985. When Shalamar breaks up in the mid
1980s, he will go on to pursue a solo career. In 1986 he
will be arrested and indicted in Miami with his fiance Mori
Molina for possession with an intent to distribute cocaine.
He subsequently married Molina who will be convicted and
serve prison time. He will then be acquitted of the charges.
He will sign with Elektra Records and record 1986's I Commit
To Love (R&B #12), a relatively solid urban album that will
yielded two R&B hits, "I’m For Real" (R&B #2) and "Stay"
(R&B #8). The album will also include "Say Amen", a gospel
tune that became a surprise hit on the Gospel charts and is
his signature song. He will contribute vocals to La Toya
Jackson's Hot 100 hit single "Heart Don't Lie" in 1984.

1960 - Nigeria proclaims its independence from Great Britain.

1961 - East & West Cameroon merge and become the Federal
Republic of Cameroon.

1962 - Some twelve thousand federal soldiers restored order on the University of Mississippi campus. James H. Meredith, escorted by federal marshals, registered at the University of Mississippi. Edwin A. Walker, former major general in the U.S. Army, was arrested and charged with inciting insurrection and seditious conspiracy. Walker, who led federal troops during the Little Rock integration crisis, had call for "Volunteers" to oppose federal forces in Mississippi. Witnesses said he led students in charges against federal marshals during the campus riot.

1963 - Nigeria becomes a republic within the British
Commonwealth.

1966 - The Black Panther party is founded in Oakland, California
by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale.

1991 - Dr. Mary Schmidt Campbell assumes her duties as dean of
New York University's Tisch School of the Arts. A noted
art historian, Schmidt had previously served as
commissioner of cultural affairs, director of the
Studio of Harlem, and chair of the Smithsonian
Institution's Advisory Committee that recommended
creation of a national African American museum.

1996 – Lt. Gen Joe Ballard becomes the first African American to head the Army Corps of Engineers
Title: 10/2
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 02, 2011, 07:20:12 pm
Republic of Guinea Independence Day

1800 – TRUE REVOLUTIONARY Nat Turner is born in Southampton, Virginia. Believing
       himself called by God to free his fellow bondsmen,
       Turner will become a freedom fighter leader of one of
       the most famous slave revolts, resulting in the death
       of scores of whites and involving 60 to 80 slaves. He
       will join the ancestors on November 11, 1831 after being
       executed for his part in the rebellion. It is important to understand Nat Turner wasn’t alone. We hear about him often cause he was caught and killed. There were over 250 slave revolts in the U.S. not including those in Mexico, the Carribbean, South America, and along the Middle Passage.

1833 - The New York Anti-Slavery Society is organized.

1898 - Otis J. Rene' is born in New Orleans, Louisiana. With
       his younger brother Leon, he will move to Los Angeles,
       California, and establish Exclusive and Excelsior
       Records in the 1930's. By the mid-1940's, the brothers
       will be leading independent record producers whose
       artists will include Nat King Cole, Herb Jeffries, and
       Johnny Otis. He will join the ancestors on April 5, 1970.

1929 - Moses Gunn is born in St. Louis, Missouri. He will become
       an Obie Award-winning stage player, and co-found the Negro
       Ensemble Company in the 1960s. His 1962 Broadway debut was
       in Jean Genet's "The Blacks." He will be nominated for a
       1976 Tony Award as Best Actor (Play) for "The Poison Tree"
       and will play Othello on Broadway in 1970. He will also
       appear in "Amityville II," "Shaft," and "Good Times." He
       will join the ancestors on December 17, 1993 after
       succumbing to complications from asthma,

1936 - Johnnie Cochran is born in Shreveport, Louisiana.  He
       will become a criminal defense attorney and will be
       best known for his defense of Black Panther Party
       member Geronimo Pratt and ex-NFL superstar O.J.
       Simpson. He will join the ancestors on March 29, 2005.

1958 - The Republic of Guinea gains independence from France under the
       leadership of Sekou Toure.

1967 - Thurgood Marshall becomes the first African American
       member of the United States Supreme Court when he is
       sworn in by Chief Justice Earl Warren. As chief
       counsel for the National Association for the
       Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in the 1940s
       and '50s, Marshall was the architect and executor of
       the legal strategy that ended the era of official
       racial segregation. The great-grandson of a slave,
       Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1908.
       After being rejected from the University of Maryland
       Law School on account of his race, he was accepted at
       all-black Howard University in Washington, DC. At
       Howard, he studied under the tutelage of civil
       liberties lawyer Charles H. Houston and in 1933
       graduated first in his class. In 1936, he joined the
       legal division of the NAACP, of which Houston was
       director, and two years later succeeded his mentor
       in the organization's top legal post.

1967 - Robert H. Lawrence, who was named the first African
       American astronaut, joins the ancestors after being
       killed in a plane crash before his first mission.

1981 - Hazel Scott, renown jazz singer and pianist, joins
       the ancestors at the age of 61 (succumbed to pancreatic
       cancer).
1986 - The United States Senate overrides President Ronald
       Reagan's veto of legislation imposing economic
       sanctions against South Africa. The override is seen
       as the culmination of efforts by Trans-Africa's
       Randall Robinson, Rep. Mickey Leland, and others
       begun almost two years earlier with Robinson's
       arrest before the South African Embassy in
       Washington, DC. On this date, President Ronald Reagan also appointed Edward J. Perkins ambassador to South Africa.

1989 - "Jump Start" premiers in 40 newspapers in the United
       States. The comic strip is the creation of 26-year-
       old Robb Armstrong, the youngest African American to
       have a syndicated comic strip. He follows in the
       footsteps of Morrie Turner, the creator of "Wee Pals,"
       the first African American syndicated comic strip.
Title: 10/3
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 03, 2011, 09:57:08 pm
1856 - T. (Timothy) Thomas Fortune is born a slave in Marianna,
       Florida. In Chicago on January 25, 1890, he will
       co-found the militant National Afro-American League to
       right wrongs against African Americans authorized by law
       and sanctioned or tolerated by public opinion. The league
       will fall apart after four years. When it is revived in
       Rochester, New York on September 15, 1898, it will have
       the new name of the "National Afro-American Council",
       with him as President. Those two organizations will play
       a vital role in setting the stage for the Niagara Movement,
       NAACP and other civil rights organizations to follow. He
       will also be the leading advocate of using "Afro-American"
       to identify his people. Since they are "African in origin
       and American in birth", it is his argument that it most
       accurately defines them. With himself at the helm as co-
       owner with Emanuel Fortune, Jr. and Jerome B. Peterson, the
       New York Age will become the most widely read of all Black
       newspapers. It will stand at the forefront as a voice
       agitating against the evils of discrimination, lynching,
       mob violence, and disenfranchisement. Its popularity is due
       to his editorials which condemn all forms of discrimination
       and demand full justice for all African Americans. Ida B.
       Wells's newspaper "Memphis Free Speech and Headlight" will
       have its printing press destroyed and building burned as
       the result of an article published in it on May 25, 1892. He
       will then give her a job and a new platform from which to
       detail and condemn lynching. His book, "The Kind of Education
       the Afro-American Most Needs" is published in 1898. He will
       publish "Dreams of Life: Miscellaneous Poems" in 1905. After
       a nervous breakdown, he will sell the New York Age to Fred R.
       Moore in 1907, who will continue publishing it until 1960.
       He will publish another book, "The New York Negro in
       Journalism" in 1915. He will join the ancestors on June 2,
       1928 in Philadephia, Pennsylvania.

1904 - The Daytona Normal and Industrial School opens in Daytona
       Beach, Florida. In 1923, the school merges with Cookman
       Institute and becomes Bethune-Cookman College.  One of
       the leading institutions for training teachers, founder
       Mary McLeod Bethune will later say the college was
       started on "faith and a dollar and a half."

1935 - Ethiopia is invaded by Italy, despite Emperor Haile
       Selasse's pleas for help to the League of Nations.

1941 - Ernest Evans is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Later
       adopting the name "Chubby Checker" after the renowned
       Fats Domino, his best-known recording will be the
       1960's "The Twist," which will spark the biggest dance
       craze since the Charleston in the 1920's.

1949 - The first African American owned radio station, WERD-AM
       in Atlanta, Georgia, is founded by Jesse Blanton, Sr.

1979 - Artist Charles White, joins the ancestors at the age of
       61 in Los Angeles, California.

1990 – Rio de Janeiro’s first black congresswoman, Benedita da Silva, sweeps the first round of the city’s mayoral race.

1991 - Public Enemy released their platinum-selling 4th album “Apocalypse ‘91” – The Enemy Strikes Black on Def Jam Records , on this day in 1991. Classics tracks like “Shut ‘Em Down” , “Nighttrain” and a remake of “Bring The Noise” with heavy metal bad Anthrax , prompted hip-hop heads to call this set the “birth of hardcore rap”. Album cuts like “Lost At Birth” , “Rebirth” and “Move” would bring underground hip-hop to a whole other level. The album produced the hit single “Can’t Truss It”. Pete Rock’s remixes to singles like “Nighttrain” and “Shut ‘Em Down” also ushered in the era of “the hip-hop remix”, which would see rap singles flipped entirely from their original versions which is common place in the industry until this day. "By the Time I Get to Arizona" is a classic example of how hip hop music could have an influence on spreading awareness and sparking change when it comes to politics. “Apocalypse ‘91” also saw Gary “G” Wiz Rinaldo come to the forefront of The Bomb Squad production sound in regards to P.E. records , bringing in a heavy drum influence as well as meshing it with melodic horn lines while all the while keeping P.E.’s explosive sound.

1994 - U.S. soldiers in Haiti raid the headquarters of a pro-
       army militia that is despised by the general Haitian
       population.

1994 - Agriculture Secretary Mike Espy announces his
       resignation because of questions about gifts he had
       received.

1994 - South African President Nelson Mandela addresses the
       United Nations, urging the world to support his
       country's economy.

1995 - Ex-football star O.J. Simpson is cleared today of murdering his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and                 her friend Ronald Goldman.
Title: 10/4
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 04, 2011, 10:49:03 am
1864 - The National Black Convention meets in Syracuse, New York.

1864 - The New Orleans Tribune, the first African American daily
newspaper, is founded by Dr. Louis C. Roudanez. The
newspaper, published in both English and French, starts
as a tri-weekly, but soon becomes an influential daily.

1934 - Malvin Gray Johnson joins the ancestors in New York City.
His deceptively simple paintings, with their warm colors
and serene, sensuous charm, had earned him a large and
loyal group of admirers during the Harlem Renaissance.

1937 - Lee Patrick Brown is born in Wewoka, Oklahoma. He will
become one of the top-ranking law-enforcement executives
in the United States, first as Public Safety Commissioner
in Atlanta, Georgia, then as the first African American
police chief in Houston, Texas, the second African
American police commissioner for New York City, and the
first African American mayor of Houston.

1943 - Hubert Gerold Brown is born in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
He will be better known as H. Rap Brown, become a Black
nationalist and chairman of the Student Nonviolent
Coordinating Committee in the 1960s, and later the
Justice Minister of the Black Panther Party. He will be
most famous for his proclamation during that period that
"violence is as American as cherry pie", as well as once
stating that "If America don't come around, we're gonna
burn it down". He is also known for his autobiography "Die
Nigger Die!". He will spend five years (1971-1976) in
New York's Attica Prison after a robbery conviction. While
in prison, he will convert to Islam and change his name to
Jamil Abdullah al-Amin. After his release, he will open a
grocery store in Atlanta, Georgia and become a Muslim
spiritual leader and community activist, preaching against
drugs and gambling in Atlanta's West End neighborhood. He
will be sentenced to life in prison, without the possibility of
parole, for the 2000 shooting of two Fulton County Sheriff's
deputies, one of whom joins the ancestors.

1944 - Dancer Pearl Primus makes her Broadway debut at the
Belasco Theater. She will become widely known for
blending the African and American dance traditions.

1944 - Patricia Holt is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She
will become a singer known as Patti LaBelle and will be
a lead with the Ordettes, the Bluebells, and LaBelle.
She will eventually debut a solo career performing over
90 concerts a year. She will publish her life story,
"Don't Block The Blessings: Revelations of a Lifetime."

1945 - Clifton Davis is born in Chicago, Illinois. He will
become an actor and singer, performing in "That's My
Mama," and "Amen" on television. He will also become a
minister in the Seventh Day Adventist Church.

1966 - Lesotho (Basutoland) gains its independence from Great
Britain.

1976 - Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz resigns in the wake
of a controversy over a joke he had made about Blacks.

1982 - Rayford Logan, educator, historian, author, dies

1988 - The Martin L. King, Jr. Federal Building is dedicated in Atlanta, Ga. It is the first federal building in the nation to bear the name of the slain civil rights leader.

1991 - The Harold Washington Library in Chicago, Illinois is
dedicated in the memory of its beloved former mayor.

1994 - Exiled Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide vows in
an address to the U.N. General Assembly, to return to
Haiti in 11 days.

1994 - President Clinton welcomes South African President Nelson
Mandela to the White House.

1996 - Congress passes a bill authorizing the creation of 500,000 Black Revolutionary War Patriots Commemorative coins.
Title: 10/5
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 05, 2011, 03:31:48 am
1867 - Monroe Baker, a well-to-do African American businessman,
       is named mayor of St. Martin, Louisiana.  He is probably
       the first African American to serve as mayor of a town.

1869 - First Reconstruction legislature (27 Blacks, 150 whites) met in Richmond, Virginia.

1872 - Booker T. Washington leaves Malden, West Virginia to enter
       Hampton Institute.

1878 - George B. Vashion joins the ancestors after succumbing to
       yellow fever in Rodney, Mississippi. He was the first
       African American lawyer in the state of New York and an
       educator and poet whose most famous work was "Victor Oge"
       (1854), the first narrative, nonlyrical poem by an
       African American writer.

1929 - Autherine Lucy (later Foster) is born in Shiloh, Alabama.
       She will be the first African American student to enroll
       at the University of Alabama (1956).

1932 - Perle Yvonne Watson is born in Los Angeles, California. As
       Yvonne Braithwaite, she will serve as staff attorney on
       the McCone Commission investigating the causes of the
       Watts riots and will become the first African American
       woman elected to the California state assembly, as well
       as the first African American woman elected to the House
       of Representatives.  She also will be the first woman to
       sit on the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors as a
       result of an appointment by Governor Brown.  Some years
       later, she will become the first woman elected to the Los
       Angeles County Board of Supervisors.

1992 - Eddie Kendrick, one of the original members of the Motown
       group, The Temptations, joins the ancestors after
       succumbing to lung cancer.
Title: 10/6
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 06, 2011, 11:15:14 am
Ourstory 10/6

1776 - Henri Christophe is born a slave in Grenada. He will
become a Haitian revolutionist and ruler and also become
provisional chief of northern Haiti. He will establish
himself as King Henri I in the north and build Citadelle
Laferriere.

1847 - National Black convention meets in Troy, New York, with
more than sixty delegates from nine states. Nathan
Johnson of Massachusetts is elected president.

1868 - An African American state convention at Macon, Georgia,
protests expulsion of African American politicians from
the Georgia legislature.

1871 - The Fisk Jubilee Singers begin their tour to raise money
for the school. Soon they will become one of the most
popular African American folk-singing groups of the late
19th century, performing throughout the U.S. and Europe
and raising large sums for Fisk's building program.

1917 - Fannie Lou Hamer is born near Ruleville, Mississippi. She
will become a leader of the civil rights movement during
the 1960's and founder of the Mississippi Freedom
Democratic Party in Montgomery County, Mississippi.

1921 - Joseph Echols Lowery is born in Huntsville, Alabama. An
early civil rights activist, he will become a founder,
chairman of the board, and president of the Southern
Christian Leadership Conference. He will lead SCLC to
great levels of civil rights activism including a 2,700
mile pilgrimage to extend and strengthen the Voting
Rights Act, protesting toxic waste sites in African
American communities, and actions against United States'
corporations doing business in apartheid South Africa.

1949 – Lonnie Johnson, creator of the Super Soaker water gun and owner of over 40 patents was born in Mobile, AL

1965 - Patricia Harris takes the post as U.S. Ambassador to
Belgium, becoming the first African American U.S.
ambassador.

1971 - John A. Wilkinson's marriage to Lorraine Mary Turner was the first legalized interracial marriage in North Carolina. Wilkinson was black and Turner was white.

1981 - Anwar Sadat, president of Egypt, is assassinated by
extremists while reviewing a military parade.

1985 - W.D. Davis patented an improved riding saddle.

1986 - Abram Hill joins the ancestors in New York City. He was
the founder of the city's American Negro Theatre in 1940,
where the careers of Harry Belafonte, Ruby Dee, and
Sidney Poitier were launched. Hill's adaptation of the
play "Anna Lucasta" premiered on Broadway in 1944 and
ran successfully for 900 performances.

1991 - Williams College's exhibit of African American photography
- "Black Photographers Bear Witness: 100 Years of Social
Protest" opens. The exhibit includes photography by C.M.
Battey, James Van Der Zee, Marvin and Morgan Smith,
Moneta Sleet, Carrie Mae Weems, and others.

1991 - Anita Hill, a former personal assistant to Supreme Court
justice nominee Clarence Thomas, accuses Thomas of sexual
harassment (from 1981-83) during his confirmation
hearings.

1994 - South African President, Nelson Mandela, addresses a joint
session of Congress. He will warn against the lure of
isolationism, saying the U.S. post-Cold War focus should
be on eliminating "tyranny, instability and poverty"
across the globe.
Title: 10/7
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 07, 2011, 11:03:29 am
1800 – Gabriel Prosser was hung for leading a slave revolt in Virginia. A similar plot was discovered in 1722. About 200 slaves had armed themselves with plans to kill the town’s whites while they attended church.

1821 - William Still is born in Burlington County, New Jersey.
He will become an abolitionist and will be involved in
the anti-slavery movement working for the Pennsylvania
Society for the Abolition of Slavery. After the Civil
War, he will chronicle the personal accounts of former
runaway slaves, who had traveled on the Underground
Railroad. His publication, "Underground Railroad,"
published in 1872, will provide a revealing look into
the activities of the flight of fugitive slaves. Still
will be a civil rights activist, researcher and writer,
until he joins the ancestors on July 14, 1902.

1873 - Henry E. Hayne, secretary of state, is accepted as a
student at the University of South Carolina. Scores of
African Americans will attend the university in 1874 and
1875.

1886 - Spain abolishes slavery in Cuba.

1888 - Sargent C. Johnson is born in Boston, Massachusetts. He
will be a pioneering artist of the Harlem Renaissance,
known for his wood, cast stone, and ceramic sculptures.
Among his most famous works will be "Forever Free" and
"Mask.

1891 - Archibald John Motley, Jr. is born in New Orleans,
Louisiana. He will become one of the more renowned
painters of the 1920's and 1930's. He will join the
ancestors on January 16, 1981.

1897 - Elijah Poole is born in Sandersville, Georgia. He will
become better known as The Honorable Elijah Muhammad,
one of the most influential leaders in the Nation of
Islam. Poole will be trained by Master Wallace Fard
Muhammad, founder of the Nation of Islam, and will lead
the organization to become the largest African American
movement since Garveyism until he joins the ancestors
on February 25, 1975.

1931 - Desmond Mpilo Tutu is born in Klerksdorp, South Africa.
He will become the Nobel Peace Prize winner in 1984, and
Archbishop of the Anglican Church (First Anglican bishop
of African descent) of Johannesburg, South Africa.

1934 - LeRoi Jones is born in Newark, New Jersey. He will be
better known as Amiri Baraka, influential playwright,
author, and critic of the African American experience.

1981 - Egypt's parliament names Vice President Hosni Mubarak to
succeed the assassinated Anwar Sadat.
Title: 10/8
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 08, 2011, 08:53:10 am
Ourstory 10/8

1775 - A council of general officers decides to bar slaves and
free African Americans from serving in the Continental
Army.

1820 – Henri Christophe, leader of Haitan independence from France, died in Cap-Haitien

1930 - Faith Ringgold is born in New York City. She will become
a multimedia artist whose paintings, face masks, fabric
and soft sculptures, and quilts will earn her praise for
her reaffirmation of African American women's values and
unique perspective.

1950 - Robert "Kool" Bell is born. He will become a Rhythm and
Blues singer and will become the leader of his own group,
"Kool & the Gang."

1963 - The Sultan of Zanzibar cedes his mainland possessions to
Kenya.

1969 - Police officers and African Americans exchange sniper
fire on Chicago's West Side. One youth is killed and
nine policemen are injured.

1980 – Bob Marley collapses during a concert in Pittsburgh, PA; he will not perform again

1992 - The Nobel Prize for literature is awarded to West Indies
poet, Derek Walcott.

1993 - The U.N. General Assembly lifted almost all its remaining
economic sanctions against South Africa, begun in the
1960s and built up in subsequent years because of
Pretoria's policy of racial apartheid.

1999 - Laila Ali, the 21-year-old daughter of Muhammad Ali,
makes her professional boxing debut by knocking out
opponent April Fowler 31 seconds after the opening bell
in Verona, New York.

2004 - The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Kenyan ecologist Wangari Maathai

2009 - Abu Talib, bluesman who recorded and toured with Ray Charles
and Little Walter under his given name, Freddy Robinson,
joins the ancestors in Lancaster, California after
succumbing to cancer.
Title: 10/9
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 09, 2011, 08:05:41 am
Uganda Independence Day

1806 – Mathematician and astronomer Benjamin Banneker dies in Ellicott City, MD

1823 - Mary Ann Shadd (later Cary) is born free in Wilmington,
       Delaware, the eldest of thirteen children.  She will
       become the publisher of Canada's first anti-slavery
       newspaper, "The Provincial Freeman", devoted to displaced
       African Americans living in Canada. This also makes her
       the first woman in North America to publish and edit a
       newspaper.  She will then become a teacher, establishing
       or teaching in schools for African Americans in
       Wilmington, Delaware, West Chester, Pennsylvania, New
       York, Morristown, New Jersey, and Canada. She will also
       be the first woman to speak at a national Negro
       convention. In 1869, she will embark on her second
       career, becoming the first woman to enter Howard
       University's law school. She will become the first
       African American woman to obtain a law degree and among
       the first women in the United States to do so.  She will
       join the ancestors in 1893.

1894 - Eugene Jacques Bullard is born in Columbus, Georgia.

1906 - Leopold Senghor is born in Joal, Senegal, French West
       Africa (now in Senegal).  He will become a poet and
       president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980.  Senghor will
       attempt to modernize Senegal's agriculture, instill a
       sense of enlightened citizenship, combat corruption and
       inefficiency, forge closer ties with his African
       neighbors, and continue cooperation with the French. He
       will advocate an African socialism based on African
       realities, free of both atheism and excessive
       materialism. He will seek an open, democratic,
       humanistic socialism that shunned such slogans as
       "dictatorship of the proletariat." A vigorous spokesman
       for the Third World, he will protest unfair terms of
       trade that work to the disadvantage of the agricultural
       nations. In 1984, Senghor will be inducted into the
       French Academy, becoming the first Black member in that
       body's history.

1929 - Ernest "Dutch" Morial is born in New Orleans, Louisiana.
       He will become the first African American mayor of New
       Orleans in 1978 and be re-elected in 1982.

1940 - The White House releases a statement which says that
       government "policy is not to intermingle colored and
       white enlisted personnel in the same regimental
       organizations."

1961 - Tanganyika becomes independent within the British
       Commonwealth.

1962 - Uganda gains its independence from Great Britain.

1963 - Uganda becomes a republic within the British Commonwealth.

1984 - W Wilson Goode becomes the 1st African American mayor of Philadelphia

1991 - Korean store owner shoots and kills teenager Latasha Harlins in the back of the head. Despite widespread protests, the store owner is only convicted of 10 years of probation. Her store was firebombed weeks later.

1999 - Milt Jackson, a jazz vibraphonist who made the instrument
       sing like the human voice as a longtime member of the
       Modern Jazz Quartet, joins the ancestors at the age of
       76.  He succumbs to liver cancer in a Manhattan hospital.
Title: 10/10
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 10, 2011, 05:02:18 am
1874 - South Carolina Republicans carry the election with a
       reduced victory margin.  The Republican ticket is
       composed of four whites and four Blacks.

1899 - J.W. Butts, inventor, receives a patent for a luggage
       carrier.

1899 - I. R. Johnson patents his bicycle frame.

1901 - Frederick Douglass Patterson is born in Washington, DC.
       He will receive doctorate degrees from both Iowa State
       University and Cornell University.  Dr. Patterson will
       serve as the president of Tuskegee Institute from 1935
       to 1955.  In 1943, he will organize a meeting of the
       heads of Black colleges to conduct annual campaigns
       for funds needed to help meet the operating expenses of
       27 Black colleges and universities.  This will result
       in the formation of the United Negro College Fund. Dr.
       Patterson will serve as its first president.

1917 - Thelonious Monk is born in Rocky Mount, North Carolina.
       He will become an innovative jazz pianist and composer
       of ‘Round Midnight.' Monk will be considered one of the
       fathers of jazz improvisation and in 1961 will be
       featured on the cover of Time magazine, only one of
       three jazz musicians so honored at that time.

1935 - George Gershwin's "Porgy and Bess" premieres at the
       Alvin Theater in New York City.

1946 - Ben Vereen is born in Miami, Florida.  He will become a
       dancer and multi-faceted entertainer.

1953 - Gus Williams is born. He will become a professional
       basketball player and NBA guard with the Golden State
       Warriors, Seattle Supersonics, and Washington Bullets.

1957 - President Eisenhower apologizes to the finance minister
       of Ghana, Komla Agbeli Gbdemah, after he is refused
       service in a Dover, Delaware restaurant.

1961 - Otis M. Smith is appointed to the Michigan Supreme Court
       and becomes the first African American on the high
       court.

1964 – This was Day 1 for the Nation of Gods and Earths commonly known as the Five Percenters. The NGE uses street-based education as a means of proactive social change.

1978 - Congressman Ralph H. Metcalfe joins the ancestors in
       Chicago at the age of 68.

1989 -  South African President F.W. de Klerk announces that
       eight prominent political prisoners, including African
       National Congress official Walter Sisulu, would be
       unconditionally freed, but that Nelson Mandela would
       remain imprisoned.









Title: 10/11
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 12, 2011, 03:14:47 pm
1864 - Slavery is abolished in Maryland.

1865 - Jamaican national hero, Paul Bogle leads a successful
       protest march to the Morant Bay Courthouse.  Poverty and
       injustice in Jamaican society and lack of public
       confidence in the central authority had urged Paul Bogle
       to lead the march.  A violent confrontation with official
       forces will follow the march, resulting in the death of
       nearly 500 people.  Many others will be flogged and
       punished before order is restored.  Paul Bogle will be
       captured and hanged on October 24, 1865.  His forceful
       demonstration will pave the way for the establishment of
       just practices in the courts and bring about a change in
       official attitude, making possible the social and economic
       betterment of the Jamaican people.

1882 - Robert Nathaniel Dett, is born in Ontario, Canada.  He will
       become an acclaimed concert pianist, composer, arranger,
       and choral conductor.  He will receive his musical
       education at the Oliver Willis Halstead Conservatory in
       Lockport, NY, Oberlin College (BM, 1908, composition and
       piano), and the Eastman School of Music (MM, 1938).  He
       will become President of the National Association of Negro
       Musicians from 1924-1926.  His teaching tenures will
       include Lane College in Tennessee, Lincoln Institute in
       Missouri, Bennett College in North Carolina, and Hampton
       Institute in Virginia.  It will be at Hampton Institute
       that he develops the choral ensembles which will receive
       international acclaim and recognition. He will join the
       ancestors on October 2, 1943, in Battle Creek, Michigan,
       after succumbing to congestive heart failure.

1887 – Granville T. Woods patented the telephone. He later sold his patent to General Electric, 1887

1887 - A. Miles registers a patent on an elevator.

1919 - Arthur "Art" Blakey is born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
       Blakey, a jazz drummer credited as one of the creators of
       bebop, will be best known as the founder of the Jazz
       Messengers. The band will become a proving ground for some
       of the best modern jazz musicians, including Horace Silver,
       Hank Mobely, Freddie Hubbard, Wayne Shorter, Sonny Rollins,
       Wynton Marsalis, and Branford Marsalis. He will join the
       ancestors on October 16, 1990.

1939 - Coleman Hawkins records his famous "Body and Soul" in New
       York City.

1939 - The NAACP organizes the Education and Legal Defense Fund.

1972 - A major prison uprising occurs at the Washington, DC jail.

1976 - The United Nations Day of Solidarity with South Africa is
       declared by the membership of the United Nations.  A
       special day of solidarity is observed with the numerous
       political prisoners who are being held in South Africa.

1985 - President Reagan bans the importation of South African gold
       coins known as Krugerrands.

1991 - Redd Foxx (John Elroy Sanford), comedian (Sanford & Sons,
       Harlem Nights), joins the ancestors at the age of 68.

1994 - U.S. troops in Haiti take over the National Palace.
Title: 10/12
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 12, 2011, 05:32:35 pm
1904 - William Montague Cobb is born in Washington, DC. He will
       become the only Black physical anthropologist with a
       Ph.D. before the Korean War, He will hold the only Black
       perspective on physical anthropology for many years.
       He will serve as the Chairman of the Anthropology
       Section of the American Association for Advancement of
       Science and be the first African American President of
       the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.
       He will be not only a famous physical anthropologist
       because of his race, but also because of the great
       contributions he made to the field of anthropology. He
       grew up pondering the question of race, which ultimately
       led him to his studies of anthropology. After graduating
       from Dunbar High School, he will continue his studies at
       Amherst College, where he will study a wide variety of
       subjects and graduate with a Bachelor of Arts degree.
       After his graduation from Amherst, he will research
       embryology at the prestigious Woods Hole Marine Biology
       Laboratory in Massachusetts. He will then attend Howard
       University Medical School, where he will earn an Masters
       Degree in 1929 and will later spend much of his
       professional career. The next few years, he will spend
       his time at Case Western Reserve University, where he will
       earn a Ph.D. and work on the Hamann-Todd Skeletal
       Collection. He will return to Howard University in 1932
       and begin working on a laboratory of his own to conduct
       skeletal research. He will also continue his research on
       human cranio-facial union at the Hamann-Todd Collection
       and the Smithsonian Institute during the summers. In his
       mind, his two best papers on this subject were "The
       Cranio-Facial Union and the Maxillary Tuber in Mammals"
       (1943), and "Cranio-Facial Union in Man" (1940). These
       publications will establish him as a functional anatomist.
       He will also make significant contributions in the issue
       of race in athletics, where he will claim race was
       insignificant to athletics and also profile the biology
       and demography of the African American race during the
       1930's. He will leave his legacy of skeletal research with
       the Laboratory of Anatomy and Physical Anthropology at
       Howard University. This collection of over 600 skeletons
       will be considered one of the premiere collections of its
       kind. He will also be the editor of the Journal of the
       National Medical Association from 1949 to 1977. He will
       join the ancestors on November 20, 1990.

1908 - Ann Lane Petry is born in Old Saybrook, Connecticut.  She
       will become the author of "The Street and the Juvenile
       Work", and "Harriet Tubman, Conductor of the
       Underground Railroad." She will join the ancestors on
       April 28, 1997.

1925 - Xavier University, America's only African American
       Catholic college, becomes a reality, when the College
       of Liberal Arts and Sciences is established.  The
       first degrees were awarded three years later. (The
       Normal School was founded in 1915.)

1929 - Napoleon Brown Goodson Culp is born in Charlotte, North
       Carolina.  He will become a blues singer better known as
       "Nappy" Brown.  He will begin his career as the lead singer
       for the gospel group, The Heavenly Lights, recording for
       Savoy Records.  In 1954, Savoy will convince Brown to
       cross over to secular music.  For the next few years,
       he will ride the first wave of rock and roll until his
       records stop selling.  After years away from the
       limelight, he will resurface in 1984 with an album for
       Landslide Records.  He will then regularly perform and
       record for the New Moon Blues independent label. He will
       join the ancestors on September 20, 2008.

1932 - Richard Claxton Gregory is born in St. Louis, Missouri.
       He will be better known as "Dick" Gregory and in the
       1960's will become a comedic pioneer, bringing a new
       perspective to comedy and opening many doors for Black
       entertainers. Once he achieves success in the
       entertainment world, he will shift gears and use his
       talents to help causes in which he believes.  He will
       serve the community for over forty years as a comedian,
       civil and human rights activist and health/nutrition
       advocate. On October 9, 2000, his friends and
       supporters will honor him at a Kennedy Center gala,
       showing him their "appreciation for his uncommon
       character, unconditional love, and generous service."

1935 - Samuel David Moore is born in Winchester, Georgia.  He
       will become a rhythm and blues singer and one half of
       the group: Sam & Dave (Dave Prater).  The two singers
       will be brought together onstage at Miami's King of Hearts
       nightclub during an amateur night venue. Sam and Dave
       will record for the Alston and Roulette labels before
       being discovered by Atlantic Records' Jerry Wexler,
       who caught their act at the King of Hearts in 1964 and
       then sent them to Memphis-based Stax to record the
       next year.  They will be best know for their hits,
       "Hold On! I'm a Comin'", "Soul Man", "I Thank You",
       and "You Got Me Hummin'".  Sam and Dave will finally
       call it quits after a performance in San Francisco on
       New Year's Eve in 1981.  Samuel Moore will live to see
       the induction of Sam and Dave into the Rock and Roll
       Hall of Fame in 1992 (Dave Prater will be killed in an
       automobile accident on April 9, 1988).

1945 - Jesse James Payne was lynched in Madison County. Florida.

1968 - Equatorial Guinea gains independence from Spain.

1972 - Forty-six African American and white sailors are
       injured in a racially motivated insurrection aboard
       the aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk, off the coast of
       North Vietnam.

1989 - George Beavers, Jr., the last surviving founder of
       Golden State Life Insurance Company of Los Angeles,
       California, joins the ancestors. He co-founded this
       company in 1925, which is the third largest African
       American life insurance company, with $120 million in
       assets and $5 billion of insurance in force.
Title: 10/13
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 13, 2011, 05:28:11 pm
1831 - Jo Anderson, a slave, helps invent the grain harvester
       reaper.

1876 - Meharry Medical College, formally opens at Central
       Tennessee College.

1901 - Edith Spurlock (later Sampson) is born in Pittsburgh,
       Pennsylvania. She will graduate from the John Marshall
       Law School in Chicago in 1925 with a Bachelor of Laws
       degree.  In 1927, she will become the first African
       American woman to receive a Masters of Laws degree from
       Loyola University. She will become a member of the
       Illinois bar in 1927, and be admitted to practice before
       the Supreme Court in 1934.  She will become the first
       African American woman to be named a delegate to the
       United Nations. She will serve from 1950 to 1953, first
       as an appointee of President Harry S. Truman and later
       during a portion of the Eisenhower Administration. She
       will join the ancestors on October 8, 1979.

1902 - Arna Bontemps is born in Alexandria, Louisiana.  He will
       become a prolific poet, librarian, and author of
       historical and juvenile fiction.  Among his best-known
       works will be "God Sends Sunday" and "Black Thunder",
       the juvenile books "We Have Tomorrow" and "The Story of
       the Negro", and "American Negro Poetry", which he edited.
       In 1943, after graduating from the University of Chicago
       with a masters degree in library science, Bontemps was
       appointed librarian at Fisk University in Nashville,
       Tennessee. He will hold that position for 22 years and
       will develop important collections and archives of
       African American literature and culture. Through his
       librarianship and bibliographic work, he will become a
       leading figure in establishing African American
       literature as a legitimate object of study and
       preservation. He will join the ancestors on June 4, 1973.

1906 - J. Saunders Redding is born in Wilmington, Delaware.  He
       will become a literary and social critic and author of
       non-fiction works on the African American experience. He
       will earn an advanced degree in English at Brown
       University (1932) and will be a professor at various
       colleges and universities, including Morehouse, Hampton,
       and Cornell. In 1949, his stint as a visiting professor
       at Brown will make him the first African American to hold
       a faculty position at an Ivy League university. He will
       write many books and articles on African American culture
       and other topics, including "To Make a Poet Black" (1939),
       a landmark history of African American literature; "No Day
       of Triumph" (1942), an autobiographical account of a
       journey through southern black communities; and "Stranger
       and Alone" (1950), a novel, as well as several more general
       historical and sociological works. He will also edit with
       Arthur P. Davis, an important anthology, "Cavalcade: Negro
       American Writing from 1760 to the Present" (1971). He will
       join the ancestors on March 2, 1988 at his home in Ithaca,
       New York.

1914 - Garrett Augustus Morgan, the son of former slaves, receives
       a patent for an invention he calls the "Safety Hood and
       Smoke Protector," which came to be known as a gas mask.

1926 - First Black naval aviator, Jesse Leroy Brown was born

1970 - Angela Davis arrested in New York City and charged with unlawful flight to avoid persecution for her alleged role in California courthouse shoot-out.

1980 - Unprovoked slayings of six Blacks in Buffalo, New York, triggered demands for national investigation. Spingarn Medal warded to Rayford W. Logan, historian and author, "in tribute to his lifetime of service as an educator and historian."
Title: 10/14
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 19, 2011, 10:57:33 am
10/14

Young People’s Day (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

1834 - Henry Blair of Glen Ross, Maryland, receives a patent for
       a corn planting machine.

1864 - The first African American daily newspaper, the New
       Orleans Tribune, is published in both French and English.

1916 - Sophomore tackle and guard Paul Robeson is excluded from
       the Rutgers football team when Washington and Lee
       University refuse to play against an African American.
       The exclusion will be temporary and the young Robeson
       will go on to be named a football All-American twice.

1958 - The District of Columbia Bar Association votes to accept
       African Americans as members.

1964 - Dr. Martin L. King, Jr. is announced as the recipient of
       the Nobel Peace Prize for his civil rights activities.
       King is the second African American to win the Peace
       Prize.

1969 - A racially motivated civil disturbance occurs in
       Springfield, Massachusetts.

1971 - Two people are killed in a Memphis, Tennessee racially
       motivated disturbance.

1980 - Bob Marley performs in his last concert before he
       untimely joins the ancestors succumbing to cancer.

1995 - Sports Illustrated places Eddie Robinson on the cover
       of its magazine.  He is the first and only coach of an
       Historically Black College or University (HBCU) to
       appear on the cover of any major sports publication in
       the United States.

1999 - Julius Nyerere, Tanzania's first president, joins the
       ancestors in a London hospital at age 77.

Title: 10/15 -10/19
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 19, 2011, 10:58:04 am
10/15

1877 - Jackson College in Jackson, Mississippi is established.

1883 - The U.S. Supreme Court declares that The Civil Rights Act
       of 1875 is unconstitutional. The Civil Rights Act of
       1875 stated that "All persons within the jurisdiction of
       the United States shall be entitled to the full and
       equal enjoyment of the accomodations, advantages,
       facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances
       on land or water, theaters, and other places of public
       amusement; subject only to the conditions and
       limitations established by law and applicable alike to
       citizens of every race and color, regardless of any
       previous condition of servitude."

1890 - Savannah State College in Savannah, Georgia is
       established.

1890 - The Alabama Penny Savings Bank is founded in Birmingham,
       Alabama by Reverend William Reuben Pettiford with $2,000
       in capital. Although, so strapped for funds in its initial
       months that its officers will not draw salaries, the bank
       will prosper so well that during the panic of 1893, it will
       remain open when larger, white banks in Birmingham fail.

1917 - The first significant group of African American officers
       is commissioned by the U.S. Army.

1949 - William Hastie is nominated for the U.S. Circuit Court
       of Appeals. He will be the first African American to
       sit on the court.

1953 - Toriano Adaryll Jackson is born in Gary, Indiana.  He
       will become a singer and member of The Jackson Five
       known as Tito.

1957 - The Sickle Cell Disease Research Foundation opens in Los
       Angeles, California. It is the forerunner to a national
       association and over 50 local chapters dedicated to
       providing education, screening, counseling, and research
       in the genetic disease that affects over 50,000
       individuals, mostly African Americans.

1966 – The Black Panther Party for self defense was formed in Oakland, CA

1969 - Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke, President of Somalia, is
       assassinated.

1974 - The National Guard is mobilized to restore order in the
       Boston school busing crisis.

1989 - South African officials release eight prominent political
       prisoners, including Walter Sisulu, a leader of the
       African National Congress.

1991 - Judge Clarence Thomas is confirmed as the 106th associate
       justice of the United States Supreme Court, despite
       sexual harassment allegations by Anita Hill, with a
       Senate vote of 52-48.  He becomes the second African
       American to sit on the Supreme Court.

1993 - African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela and South
       African President F.W. de Klerk are awarded the Nobel
       Peace Prize for their work to end apartheid and laying
       the foundations for a democratic South Africa.

1994 - Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide returns to his
       country, three years after being overthrown by army
       rulers. The U.N. Security Council welcomes Aristide's
       return by voting to lift stifling trade sanctions
       imposed against Haiti.

2005 - The Million More Movement convenes on the National Mall
       in Washington, DC.  In addition to celebrating the 10th
       anniversary of the Million Man March, there is a call
       for an end to the war in Iraq, and pointed criticism of
       the federal response to Hurricane Katrina.

10/16

1849 - George Washington Williams is born in Bedford Springs,
       Pennsylvania. He will become the first major African
       American historian and founder of two African American
       newspapers, "The Commoner" in Washington, DC, and
       Cincinnati's "The Southern Review."

1849 - Charles L. Reason is named professor of belles-lettres
       and French at Central College in McGrawville, New York.
       William G. Allen and George B. Vashon also will teach
       at the predominantly white college.

1855 - More than one hundred delegates from six states hold a
       Black convention in Philadelphia.

1855 - John Mercer Langston, one of the first African Americans
       to win public office, is elected clerk of Brownhelm
       Township, Lorain County, Ohio.

1859 - Osborne Perry Anderson, a free man, is one of five
       African Americans in John Brown's raid on the United
       States Arsenal at Harper's Ferry, West Virginia. This raid that hoped for escaped slaves to join the rebellion included 16 whites as well.

1872 - South Carolina Republicans carry the election with a
       ticket of four whites and four Blacks: Richard H.
       Gleaves, lieutenant governor; Henry E. Hayne, secretary
       of state; Francis L. Cardozo, treasurer; and Henry W.
       Purvis, adjutant general. African Americans win 97 of
       the 158 seats in the General Assembly and four of the
       five congressional districts.

1876 - A race riot occurs in Cainhoy, South Carolina.  Five
       whites and one African American are killed.

1895 - The National Medical Association is founded in Atlanta,
       Georgia.

1901 - Booker T. Washington dines at the White House with
       President Theodore Roosevelt and is criticized in the
       South.

1932 - Chi Eta Phi sorority is founded in Washington, DC.
       Aliene Carrington Ewell and 11 other women establish
       the nursing society, which will grow to 72 chapters in
       22 states, the District of Columbia, and Liberia and
       will eventually admit both men and women.

1968 - Tommie Smith and John Carlos hold up their fists in a
       Black Power salute during the 1968 Summer Games in
       Mexico City, Mexico. Their actions will come to
       symbolize the Black Power movement in sports and will
       result in their suspension from the games two days
       later.

1973 - Maynard Jackson becomes the first African American mayor
       of a major southern city when he was elected mayor of
       Atlanta, Georgia.  Jackson, at the age of 35, becomes
       one of the youngest mayors of a major city to ever be
       elected.

1984 - Anglican Bishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa is awarded
       the Nobel Peace Prize for his role as a unifying figure
       in the campaign to resolve the problems of apartheid in
       South Africa.

1990 - Art Blakey, jazz drummer (Jazz Messengers), joins the
       ancestors, after a bout with cancer, at the age of 71.

1995 - Minister Louis Farrakhan of The Nation of Islam speaks at
       The Million Man March in Washington, D.C., which he
       called for, and organized.  It is known as the "Day of
       Atonement."

1997 – The NAACP advocated for a formal revision of the word nigger in Merrium-Webster’s dictionary

2000 - The Million Family March, called for by Minister Louis
       Farrakhan, is held in Washington, DC.

10/17

Mother’s Day (Malawi)

1711 - Jupiter Hammon is born a slave on Long Island, New York. He
       will become a poet and the first published Black writer in
       America, a poem appearing in print in 1760. He will be
       considered one of the founders of African American
       literature. He will be a slave his entire life, owned by
       several generations of the Lloyd family on Long Island.
       However, he will be allowed to attend school, and unlike
       many slaves, will be able to read and write. In 1786,
       He will give his "Address to the Negroes of the State of
       New York" before the African Society. He will write the
       the speech at age seventy-six after a lifetime of slavery,
       and it will contain his famous quote, "If we should ever
       get to Heaven, we shall find nobody to reproach us for
       being Black, or for being slaves." The speech draws
       heavily on Christian motifs and theology. For example, He
       will say that Black people should maintain their high
       moral standards precisely because being slaves on Earth
       had already secured their place in heaven. His speech
       also will promote the idea of a gradual emancipation as a
       way of ending slavery. It will be thought that he stated
       this plan because he knew that slavery was so entrenched
       in American society that an immediate emancipation of all
       slaves would be more difficult to achieve. The speech will
       be later reprinted by several groups opposed to slavery.
       It is widely believed that he joined the ancestors in
       1806.

1787 - Boston African Americans, led by Prince Hall, submit to
       the State Legislature in Boston, Massachusetts, a
       petition asking for equal educational rights and
       facilities.  The petition is not granted.

1806 - Jean Jacques Dessalines, revolutionist and Emperor of
       Haiti, joins the ancestors as a result of an
       assassination.

1817 - Samuel Ringgold Ward is born on the Eastern Shore of
       Maryland. He will be considered one of the finest
       abolitionist orators. He will work for the Anti-Slavery
       Society of Canada and will travel to Britain to further
       the society's work. His fundraising success in Britain
       will provide the society to finance their support of
       escaped slaves from the United States. After publishing
       a book that will chronicle his anti-slavery achievements,
       he will be able to retire to Jamaica, where he will join
       the ancestors in 1866.

1871 - President Grant suspends the writ of habeas corpus and
       declares martial law in nine South Carolina counties
       affected by Ku Klux Klan disturbances.

1888 - The first African American bank, Capital Savings Bank of
       Washington, DC, opens for business.

1894 - Ohio National Guard kills 3 members of a lynch mob while
       rescuing an African American man.

1909 - William R. Cole is born in East Orange, New Jersey.  He
       will become a jazz drummer best known as "Cozy Cole."
       He will begin to play professionally as a teenager and
       will make his first recording at age 20 with Jelly Roll
       Morton's Red Hot Peppers. Cozy Cole will join Cab
       Calloway's band in 1939 and will join CBS radio in 1943
       to play in Raymond Scott's Orchestra, becoming one of
       the first African American musicians on a network
       musical staff.  In 1958, Cole will make a solo hit
       record, "Topsy," that sells more than a million copies.
       He will join the ancestors on January 9, 1981.

1956 - Mae C. Jemison is born in Decatur, Alabama. She will
       grow up in Chicago, become a physician, serve in the
       Peace Corps in Africa, and practice medicine in Los
       Angeles, before being selected for the astronaut
       training program in 1987.

1969 - Dr. Clifton R. Wharton Jr., is elected president of
       Michigan State University and becomes the first African
       American to head a major, predominantly white university
       in the twentieth century.

1985 - Legendary jazz and blues singer Alberta Hunter joins the
       ancestors in New York City.  She achieved fame in
       Chicago jazz clubs in the 1920's, toured Europe in the
       1930's and, after over 20 years of anonymity as a nurse,
       returned to performing in 1977.

1990 - Dr. Ralph Abernathy, civil rights leader, joins the
       ancestors.

1991 - The 100th episode of "A Different World" airs on NBC.
       The acclaimed show, a spin-off of "The Cosby Show" that
       stars Jasmine Guy, Kadeem Hardison, and an ensemble of
       young African American actors, is directed by Debbie
       Allen.

10/18

1903, 1905, 1910 (didn’t sources say different years) - Felix Houphouet-Boigny is born in the Ivory Coast when it
       was part of French colonial West Africa. In 1960, after
       the Ivory Coast (Cote' d'Ivoire) gains independence from
       France, he will become President, and hold that office
       until he joins the ancestors in 1993.

1926 - Charles Edward Berry is born in St. Louis, Missouri. He
       will become one of the foremost legends in rock and roll
       and known as "Chuck" Berry. In the early Fifties, Berry
       will lead a popular blues trio by night and work as a
       beautician by day.  After befriending Muddy Waters, he
       will be introduced to Leonard Chess of Chess Records, who
       signs him to a recording contract.  Chuck Berry will also
       be successful in crossing over to the largely white pop
       market.  His hits will include "Maybellene," "Rock and
       Roll Music," "School Days," "Johnny B. Goode," "Sweet
       Little Sixteen," "No Particular Place to Go," "You Never
       Can Tell," "Promised Land," and "My Ding-a-Ling."  He
       will inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in
       1986.

1942 - Willie Horton is born.  He will become a professional
       baseball player with the Detroit Tigers, known for his
       power hitting ability.

1945 - Paul Robeson, actor, singer, athlete and activist,
       receives the NAACP's Spingarn Medal.

1961 - Wynton Marsalis is born in New Orleans, Louisiana.  A
       jazz trumpeter from the famous Marsalis family, which
       includes father Ellis and brothers Branford and Delfayo,
       he will at 19, become a member of Art Blakely's Jazz
       Messengers and in 1984 be the first musician to win
       Grammys for jazz and classical music recordings
       simultaneously.

1968 - United States Olympic Committee suspends Tommie Smith &
       John Carlos for giving a "black power" salute as a
       protest during a victory ceremony in Mexico City on
       October 16.

1973 - "Raisin", a musical adaptation of the Lorraine Hansberry
       play, "A Raisin in the Sun", opens on Broadway.  It
       marks the debut of Debbie Allen in the role of Beneatha
       Younger and will act as the catalyst for her further
       success in television and choreography.

1990 - Filmmaker Charles Burnett's 1977 movie "Killer of Sheep"
       is declared a "national treasure" by the Library of
       Congress. It is among the first 50 films placed in the
       National Film Registry because of its significance.
       Burnett's film joins other significant films such as
       "All About Eve", "The Godfather", and "Top Hat."

10/19

1859 -  Byrd Prillerman is born a slave in Shady Grove,
       Franklin County, Virginia. He will become an
       educator, reformer, religious worker, political
       figure, and lawyer. He will be best known as the co-
       founder of the West Virginia Colored Institute in
       1891.  The school will be changed to the West
       Virginia Collegiate Institute in 1915. The school,
       under Prillerman's leadership, will become the first
       state school for African Americans to reach the rank
       of an accredited college whose work is accepted by
       the universities of the North.  The school will
       eventually become West Virginia State College, then
       West Virginia State University. He will join the
       ancestors on April 25, 1929.

1870 - The first African Americans are elected to the House
       of Representatives.  African American Republicans
       won three of the four congressional seats in South
       Carolina: Joseph H. Rainey, Robert C. DeLarge and
       Robert B. Elliott.  Rainey was elected to an un-
       expired term in the Forty-first Congress and was the
       first African American seated in the House.

1878 – Dr. Frederick Victor Nanka Bruce, the first physician on the Gold Coast, is born in Accra, Ghana

1920 - Alberta Peal is born in Cleveland, Ohio.  She will
       become a television and movie actress better known as
       LaWanda Page and will star in "Mausoleum," "Women Tell
       the Dirtiest Jokes," "Shakes the Clown," and "Don't Be
       a Menace." She will be best known for her role as Aunt
       Esther in the long-running television series, "Sanford
       and Sons." She will join the ancestors on September 14,
       2002.

1924 - "From Dixie to Broadway" premieres at the Broadhurst
       Theatre in New York City. The music is written by
       Will Vodery, an African American, who arranged music
       for the Ziegfeld Follies for 23 years.

1936 - Johnnetta Betsch (later Cole) is born in Jacksonville,
       Florida. She will have a distinguished career as an
       educator and administrator and will become the first
       African American woman to head Spelman College.

1944 - Winston Hubert McIntosh is born in Westmoreland, Jamaica.
       He will become a founding father of reggae music and be
       part of the song writing magic of the Wailers, Bob
       Marley's group. He will be better known as Peter Tosh.
       He will join the ancestors in September 11, 1987 after
       being shot during a robbery attempt.

1944 - The Navy announces that African American women would be
       allowed to become WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer
       Emergency Service).

1946 - The first exhibition of the work of Josef Nassy, an
       American citizen of Dutch-African descent, is held in
       Brussels.  The exhibit consists of 90 paintings and
       drawings Nassy created while in a Nazi-controlled
       internment camp during World War II.

1960 - Jennifer-Yvette Holiday is born in Riverside, Texas.
       She will become a singer and actress and will have her
       first big break as a star in the Broadway production
       of "Dream Girls" in 1981. She will later become a
       successful recording artist. She will be best known for
       her debut single, the Dreamgirls showstopper and Grammy
       Award-winning Rhythm & Blues/Pop hit, "And I Am Telling
       You I'm Not Going."

1960 - Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is arrested in an Atlanta,
       Georgia sit-in demonstration. John F. Kennedy, Democratic presidential candidate, called Mrs. Martin Luther King Jr. and expressed his concern about the imprisonment of Dr. King.

1981 - The Martin Luther King, Jr. Library and Archives opens
       in Atlanta, Georgia.  Founded by Coretta Scott King,
       the facility, is the largest repository in the world
       of primary resource material on Dr. Martin Luther
       King, Jr., nine major civil rights organizations, and
       the American civil rights movement.

1983 - Grenadian Prime Minister Maurice Bishop joins the
       ancestors after being assassinated after refusing to
       share leadership of the New Jewel Movement with his
       deputy, Bernard Coard.  This event will indirectly
       lead to the invasion of Grenada by the United States
       and six Caribbean nations.

1983 - The U.S. Senate approves the establishment of the
       Martin Luther King, Jr. federal holiday on the third
       Monday in January.

1988 - South African anti-apartheid leader, Walter Sisulu wins
       a $100,000 Human Rights prize.
Title: 10/20
Post by: True Father Sankofa on October 21, 2011, 01:25:48 pm
1893 – Kenya’s first president Jomo Kenyatta was born

1934 - Henry Dumas is born in Sweet Home, Arkansas. He will move
       to the village of Harlem in New York City at the age of
       ten. He will attend City College and then join the Air
       Force.  While in the Air Force he will spend a year on
       the Arabian Peninsula, where he will develop an interest
       in the Arabic language, mythology, and culture. He will
       be active in civil rights and humanitarian activities,
       including transporting food and clothing to protesters
       living in Mississippi and Tennessee. In 1967, he will
       work at Southern Illinois University as a teacher,
       counselor, and director of language workshops in its
       "Experiment in Higher Education" program. It is there
       where he meets Eugene Redmond, a fellow teacher in that
       program. He and Redmond will read their poetry at common
       gatherings; Redmond especially remembers him reading "Our
       King Is Dead," his elegy for Martin Luther King, Jr. He
       will also frequent the offices of the East St. Louis
       Monitor, which Redmond edits. He will inspire interest
       for his unique vision of black people in the diaspora.
       In many ways he will become a cultural icon in African
       American literary circles. He will claim Moms Mabley and
       gospel music as particular influences upon him. He will
       join the ancestors on May 23, 1968 at the age of 33 after
       being mistakenly shot and killed by a New York City
       Transit policeman. Over the course of the ten months that
       he lives in East St. Louis, he and Redmond will forge the
       collaborative relationship that would prove so fruitful
       to his posthumous Career. His literary legacy is kept
       alive almost single-handedly by Redmond.  His first
       collection of short fiction is entitled "Arks of Bones
       and Other Stories" (edited by Redmond in 1974), which
       includes nine stories and in which his largely mythic
       vision of African American existence is apparent.
       Redmond's commitment to making his work readily available
       to scholarly communities will continue in the publication
       of "Goodbye, Sweetwater" (1988) and "Knees of a Natural
       Man: The Selected Poetry of Henry Dumas" (1989). The
       first volume contains eight of the stories that first
       appeared in "Ark of Bones," along with excerpts from
       Dumas's unfinished novel, "Jonoah and the Green Stone"
       (1976), stories from "Rope of Wind" (1979), and three
       selections from "Goodbye Sweetwater." One of the stories
       in the final section is "Rain God," which develops the
       African American folk belief that, when it is raining and
       the sun is shining, the devil is beating his wife. Three
       young black boys literally witness this phenomenon as
       they are on their way home one rainy-sunny day. The
       second volume contains previously published as well as
       unpublished poems, including several poems with the title
       "Kef" and an accompanying number, and "Saba," with the
       same pattern. Some of the poems in "Knees" had appeared
       in "Play Ebony: Play Ivory" (1974), a collection of his
       poetry, which Redmond will edit singly in 1974 and which
       he co-edits in 1970. His poetry is inspired by African
       American music, particularly blues and jazz (he studied
       with Sun Ra), and he develops themes consistent with the
       Black Aesthetic of the 1960s. His poetry also focuses,
       in keeping with his fiction, on themes of nature and the
       natural world.

1953 – Jomo Kenyatta and five other Mau Mau leaders refuse to appeal their prison terms

1954 - Freeman Bosley, Jr., St. Louis' first African American
       mayor, is born in St. Louis, Missouri. He will attend
       Saint Louis University and Saint Louis University Law
       School. He will graduate from Saint Louis University in
       1976 with two undergraduate degrees, a B.A. in Urban
       Affairs and a B.A. in Political Science. He will receive
       his Juris Doctorate from Saint Louis University Law
       School in 1979. His public service career will begin
       when he becomes the first African American St. Louis
       Circuit Clerk for the 22nd Judicial Circuit - a position
       he will hold for ten years. He will serve as the 3rd
       Ward Democratic Committeeman, chairman of the St. Louis
       City Democratic Central Association, and the first
       African American chairman of the Democratic Party in St.
       Louis City. After winning the April 6, 1993 election
       with 66.5% of the vote, he will become the first African
       American Mayor of St. Louis. He will oversee the battle
       against the Flood of 1993, help to orchestrate the $70
       million bailout of Trans World Airlines and help to move
       the Los Angeles Rams football team to St. Louis from
       Anaheim, California. He will be defeated in his bid for
       re-election.

1967 - The first National Conference of Black Power opens in
       Newark, New Jersey.  The four-day meeting is attended
       by 1,100 African Americans.

1967 - A night of racially motivated disturbances occurs in
       Memphis, Tennessee.

1973 - The National Black Network begins operations.  It is the
       first African American owned and operated radio news
       network.
Title: 12/23
Post by: True Father Sankofa on December 23, 2011, 05:38:48 pm
1815 - Henry Highland Garnet is born in New Market, Maryland.
       He will become a noted clergyman and abolitionist.  He
       will also be the first African American to deliver a
       sermon before the House of Representatives.

1863 - Robert Blake, powder boy aboard the USS Marblehead, is
       the first African American to be awarded the Naval Medal
       of Honor "for conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary
       heroism, and intrepidity at the risk of his own life."
       The heroic action occurred during a victorious battle
       off the coast of South Carolina.

1867 – Business woman Sarah Breedlove aka Madam CJ Walker, arguably the first self made woman millionaire of any race in America and first black millionaire was born in Delta, LA. She invented and marketed Black hair care products. Contrary to popular belief, Walker never sold skin lightening products is born in Delta, Louisiana. Her hair-care, toiletry and cosmetics products revolutionized the standard of
beauty for African American women.  Her philanthropy and generosity made her a popular figure in the early 1900's. She started her business in Denver, CO which altered curling irons that were popularized by the French to suit the texture of Black womens hair.
1908 – Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. was born

1919 - Alice H. Parker patents the gas heating furnace.

1935 - Esther Mae Jones is born in Galveston, Texas.  She will
       begin her career as a blues singer at 13 as "Little"
       Esther Phillips, taking her name from a billboard for a
       gasoline company. Problems with drugs and alcohol will
       cause her to interrupt her career a number of times.
       She will record several memorable songs including "And
       I Love Him" and "Release Me."

1946 - The University of Tennessee refuses to play Duquesne
       University, because they may use an African American
       player in their basketball game.

1999 - President Clinton pardons Freddie Meeks, an African
       American sailor court-martialed for mutiny during World
       War II when he and other sailors refused to load live
       ammunition following a deadly explosion at the Port
       Chicago Naval Magazine near San Francisco that had
       claimed more than 300 lives.
2006 - DJ Carl Blaze died from multiple gunshot wounds on this day in 2006 , 2 weeks after being shot a dozen times outside a friend’s home in Manhattan , New York. Blaze , a fixture on New York’s Power 105.1 fm station , was born Carlos Rivera and was the apparent victim of a robbery.
Title: 12/25
Post by: True Father Sankofa on December 25, 2011, 10:51:19 pm
Ourstory 12/25

1760 - Jupiter Hammon, a New York slave who was probably the
       first African American poet, publishes "An Evening
       Thought:Salvation by Christ".

1776 - Oliver Cromwell and Prince Whipple are among soldiers who
       cross the Delaware River with George Washington to
       successfully attack the Hessians in Trenton, New Jersey,
       during the Revolutionary War.

1807 - Charles B. Ray is born in Falmouth, Massachusetts.  He
       will enter Wesleyan University in Connecticut and be
       forced to withdraw due to objections from northerners
       and southerners.  He will later become a prominent
       African American leader.

1837 - Cheyney University is established in Philadelphia,
       Pennsylvania. It will be first known as the "Institute
       for Colored Youth".  The school will be moved to George
       Cheyney's farm, 24 miles west of Philadelphia, in 1902.
       It will be renamed in 1913 to "The Cheyney Training
       School for Teachers."  Cheyney University of Pennsylvania
       is the first historically Black institution of learning
       in America.  It is also the first college in the United
       States to receive official state certification as an
       institution of higher academic education for African
       Americans.

1837 - Charles Lenox Remond begins his career as an antislavery
       agent. Remond will be one of the first African Americans
       employed as a lecturer by the antislavery movement.  He
       will work many years for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery
       Society.

1865 - Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia, Shaw University
       in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Virginia Union University
       in Richmond, Virginia are founded.

1875 - Charles Caldwell joins the ancestors after being
       assassinated in Clinton, Mississippi.  He was the first
       African American in the state of Mississippi to be accused
       of the murder of a white man and found "not guilty" by an
       all-white jury. He was later elected to the state senate.

1907 - Cabell "Cab" Calloway III is born in Rochester, New York. A
       versatile jazz bandleader and singer who will popularize
       scat singing, his song "Minnie the Moocher" will be the
       first million-selling jazz record.  Calloway will also
       appear in the movie "Porgy and Bess" as well as perform as
       a singer in the touring companies of "Porgy" and "Hello
       Dolly."  He will join the ancestors on November 18, 1994.

1951 - Harry T. Moore, a Florida NAACP official, joins the
       ancestors after being killed by a bomb in his home in Mims,
       Florida. Active in expanding the African American vote in
       Florida and in desegregating the University of Florida,
       Moore will be posthumously awarded the NAACP's Spingarn
       Medal in 1952.

1951 - The NAACP's Spingarn Medal is presented to Mabel K. Staupers
       for her leadership in the field of nursing.

1956 - The home of Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth, a Birmingham,
       Alabama protest leader, is destroyed by a dynamite bomb.

1959 - Michael P. Anderson is born in Plattsburgh, New York.  He
       will be raised in Spokane, Washington.  He will graduate
       from the University of Washington in 1981 and be
       commissioned a second lieutenant in the USAF. He will
       become Chief of Communication Maintenance for the 2015
       Communication Squadron and later be Director of
       Information System Maintenance for the 1920 Information
       System Group. In 1986 he will be selected to attend
       Undergraduate Pilot Training at Vance AFB, Oklahoma. He
       will serve as an aircraft commander and instructor pilot
       in the 920th Air Refueling Squadron, Wurtsmith AFB
       Michigan. He will be selected as an astronaut by NASA in
       December 1994, and will become qualified for flight crew
       assignment as a mission specialist. He will be initially
       assigned technical duties in the Flight Support Branch of
       the Astronaut Office. He will fly on the crew of STS-89
       (Shuttle Endeavour to Space Station Mir) and will log
       over 211 hours in space in 1998. Lt. Colonel Anderson
       will be assigned to the crew of STS-107 (Shuttle Columbia)
       and will join the ancestors when Columbia explodes during
       re-entry on February 1, 2003.

1965 - The Congress of Racial Equality announces that its national
       director, Dr. James Farmer, would resign on March 1.

2006 - James Brown, the dynamic "Godfather of Soul," whose
       revolutionary rhythms, rough voice and flashing footwork
       influenced generations of musicians from rock to rap,
       joined the ancestors early Christmas morning at the age of
       73. He had been hospitalized with pneumonia at Emory
       Crawford Long Hospital on 12/24 and succumbed to heart
       failure around 1:45 a.m. He was one of the major musical
       influences of the past 50 years. From Mick Jagger to
       Michael Jackson, David Bowie to Public Enemy, his rapid-
       footed dancing, hard-charging beats and heartfelt yet
       often unintelligible vocals changed the musical landscape.
Title: 1/1
Post by: True Father Sankofa on January 01, 2012, 10:58:01 pm
Ourstory 1/1
***********************************************************************
* The Nguzo Saba - The seven principles of Kwanzaa - Principle for    *
* Day #7 - Imani (ee-MAH-nee) Faith: To believe with all our hearts   *
* in our parents, our teachers, our leaders, our people and the       *
* righteousness and victory of our struggle.                          *
* http://www.endarkenment.com/kwanzaa/                                *
***********************************************************************

1788 - The Quakers in Pennsylvania emancipate their slaves.

1804 – The island of Haiti became the first African-led nation in the world, as a result of revolution and achieved independence from France after the only successful slave rebellion in world history.

1808 - The slave trade is outlawed in the United States.  This stopped
       the legal importation of African slaves, but did not stop
       domestic trading in slaves.

1831 - William Lloyd Garrison publishes the first issue of "The
       Liberator" in Boston, Massachusetts.  The newspaper will become
       a major influence in the movement to abolish slavery in the
       United States.

1937 – Lou Stovall, artist and master printmaker is born in Athens, GA

1856 - Bridget "Biddy" Mason and her children are granted their freedom
       by the California courts.  After gaining her freedom, she will
       move to Los Angeles, where she will become a major landowner and
       be known for her philanthropy to the poor.

1863 - President Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation,
       declaring freedom for slaves living in the states that joined
       the rebellion that will become known as the Civil War.

1900 - The British protectorates of Northern & Southern Nigeria are
       established.

1916 - The first issue of the "Journal of Negro History" is published
       with Carter G. Woodson as editor. Since then, several other journals have explored the Global black experience, such as the Journal of African Civilizations.

1956 - Sudan becomes independent.

1958 – Legendary hip hop DJ pioneer Grandmaster Flash was born in Bridgetown, Barbados

1959 - Edmonia Lewis was born to a Chippewa mother and African father...given the indian name Wildfire. In the fall of 1859 she admiting in Oberlin College, and later studied sculpting privately with Edmund Brackett. Lewis became known for her busts of famous figures as Abraham Lincoln, Longfellow and John Brown. Her Staue 'The Death of Cleopatra', received critical acclaim. Most popular was her "Forever Free..depicting African American man and woman removing their shackles.

1959 - Chad becomes an autonomous republic within the French Community.

1960 - Cameroon gains independence from France.

1962 - Rwanda is granted internal self-government by Belgium.

1964 - The Federation of Rhodesia & Nyasaland is dissolved.

1973 - The West African Economic Community is formed with Benin, Ivory
       Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, and Upper Volta as
       members.

1986 - Aruba becomes an independent part of Kingdom of the Netherlands.

1990 - David Dinkins is sworn in as first African American mayor of
       New York City.

1997 - The former prison for Nelson Mandela and many other South Africans is turned in to a museum at Robben Island.

1997 - Kofi Annan of Ghana becomes first black secretary of United Nations.

2005 - Shirley Chisholm, an advocate for minority rights who became the
       first African American woman elected to Congress and later the
       first African American to seek a major party's nomination for
       the U.S. presidency, joins the ancestors at the age of 80.  The
       Rev. Jesse Jackson calls her a "woman of great courage."
Title: Re: Ourstory
Post by: True Father Sankofa on January 06, 2012, 11:12:22 am
1773 - "Felix," a Boston slave, and others petition Massachusetts
       Governor Hutchinson for their freedom.  It is the first of
       a record eight similar petitions filed during the
       Revolutionary War.

1831 - The World Anti-Slavery Convention opens in London, England.

1832 - William Lloyd Garrison founds the New England Anti-Slavery
       Society at the African Meeting House in Boston,
       Massachusetts, where he issues the society's "Declaration
       of Sentiments" from the Meeting House pulpit.

1882 - Thomas Boyne receives the Congressional Medal of Honor for
       bravery in two New Mexico battles while a sergeant in Troop
       C, 9th U.S. Calvary.

1906 - Benedict Wallet Vilakazi is born in South Africa.  He will
       become a pre-apartheid Zulu poet, novelist, and educator.
       In 1946, he will become the first Black South African to
       receive a Ph.D. He will become the first Black South African
       to teach white South Africans at the university level. He
       will join the ancestors on October 26, 1947 after succumbing
       to meningitis.

1937 - Doris Payne is born in Bronx, New York. She will become a
       rhythm and blues singer better known as Doris Troy and best
       known for her song "Just One Look." She will also be known
       as "Mama Soul." "Mama, I Want To Sing" will be a stage
       musical based on her life, and co-written with her sister,
       Vy. It will run for 1,500 performances at the Heckscher
       Theatre in Harlem. She will play the part of her own mother,
       Geraldine. She will join the ancestors on February 16, 2004,
       succumbing to emphysema.

1961 - The "jail-in" movement starts in Rock Hill, S.C. when arrested students demand jail rather than fines.

1968 - John Daniel Singleton is born in Los Angeles, California.
       He will become an Academy Award-nominated film  director,
       screenwriter, and producer. His movies will depict his
       native South Los Angeles with both its sweet and violent
       sides given equal consideration. He will attend Pasadena
       City College and the University of Southern California.
       He will receive many distinctions, beginning during his
       time as an undergraduate screenwriter at the University
       of Southern California's School of Cinematic Arts,
       including nominations for Best Screenplay and Director for
       "Boyz N the Hood." He will be the youngest person ever
       nominated for Best Director at the 1991 Academy Awards for
       "Boyz N the Hood" and the first (and, to date, the only)
       African American to be nominated for the award.

1971 - Cecil A. Partee is elected president pro tem of the Illinois
       State Senate.  He is the first African American to hold this
       position.

1971 – The Dance Theater of Harlem, an All-African American ballet company, was founded, 1971

1984 - Pennsylvania Supreme Court Justice Robert N.C. Nix, Jr., is
       inaugurated as Chief Justice.  The Philadelphia native,
       former deputy attorney general of the state, and thirteen-
       year veteran of the Court, is the first African American to
       head a state Supreme Court.

1989 - Elizabeth Koontz joins the ancestors at the age of 69.  She
       was a noted educator and the first African American
       president of the National Education Association.  She also
       had been director of the Women's Bureau in the U.S.
       Department of Labor.

1993 - Jazz great, John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie, joins the ancestors
       in Englewood, New Jersey at the age of 76.  He had played
       actively until early 1992.

1996 – Recycling Black Dollars, an organization of black businesses, campaigns for “Change Bank Day” to benefit black-owned financial institutions.

2003 - Mamie Till Mobley, mother of lynched Emmett Till dies at age 81. Her insistance that her son's casket remain open helped spur the civil rights movement.
Title: 1/7
Post by: True Father Sankofa on January 07, 2012, 11:13:53 pm
1822 - A colony of free African Americans sent to Africa by the
       American Colonization Society, is established on the west
       coast of Africa. It is the beginning of the African American
       colonization of Liberia. This colony will become the
       independent nation of Liberia in 1847.

1868 - The Mississippi constitutional convention convenes in Jackson.
       It is attended by seventeen African Americans and eighty-three
       whites.

1868 - The Arkansas constitutional convention convenes in Little Rock.
       It is attended by eight African Americans and forty-three
       whites.

1890 - William B. Purvis is awarded patent #419,065 for the fountain
       pen.

1891 - Zora Neale Hurston, who will become a brilliant folklorist,
       novelist, and short story writer, is born in Notasulga,
       Alabama. For reasons known only to her, she will claim 1901 as
       her birth year and the all-Black town of Eatonville, Florida as
       her birthplace. She will be one of the more influential writers
       of the Harlem Renaissance, known for her novel "Their Eyes Were
       Watching God" and her folklore collections, including "Of Mules
       and Men." She will join the ancestors on January 28, 1960.

1892 - A mine explosion kills 100 in Krebs, Oklahoma.  African
       Americans trying to help rescue white survivors, are driven
       away at gunpoint.

1950 - The James Weldon Johnson Collection officially opens at Yale
       University.  Established in 1941 through a gift by Grace Nail
       Johnson, widow of the famed author, diplomat and NAACP
       official, the collection will eventually include the papers of
       Johnson, Langston Hughes, W.E.B. Dubois, Richard Wright, Jean
       Toomer, Zora Neale Hurston, and many other writers of the
       Harlem Renaissance.

1964 - The Bahamas achieve internal self-government & cabinet level
       responsibility.

1986 - White teens in Howard Beach chased Michael Griffith, an African-American youth, onto a freeway where he was hit by a motorist. Griffith died from his injuries setting off a wave of protests and racial tensions in New York.

1997 – Former South African president Pieter W. Botha is prosecuted for refusing to appear before the nation’s truth commission.

2002 - Shirley Franklin is sworn in as the first African American Mayor of Atlanta and the only African American female mayor of a major American city.

2003 - Thurgood Marshall, a famed civil rights lawyer and U.S. Supreme
       Court Justice, is honored by the United States Postal Service
       with the 26th stamp issuance in the Black Heritage
       Commemorative Series.
Title: Re: Ourstory
Post by: True Father Sankofa on January 08, 2012, 02:02:37 am
Black people are the Original people of the planet. DNA evidence proves that all humans today came from a group of Blacks who traveled and settled the globe 50,000 years ago.

All of the elements of civilization first began in Africa, including religion, art, science, government, mining, writing, music, mathematics, architecture, engineering, and agriculture.

Before Greece, Rome or Europe was ever established, there were multiple Black civilizations throughout the world, already thousands of years old.

Blacks started compulsory education. Even stone workers in ancient Egypt learned to read, and education was made mandatory by the Moors, while 90% of Europe was illiterate, including the royalty.

Blacks started libraries. The ancient Egyptians created paper about 4000 BC, which library storage easier. Over 700,000 books were in the libraries of Egypt before Homer, the father of Western literature, was even born.

The earliest mathematical device found to date is the Lebombo bone of southern Africa. It is about 37,000 years old and appears to be a lunar calendar.

For more jewels like this cop the 365 Days of REAL Black History calendar by Supreme Design Publishing
http://www.supremedesignonline.com/blackhistory365.html
Title: 1/8
Post by: True Father Sankofa on January 08, 2012, 09:38:59 pm
1811 - A slave rebellion begins 35 miles outside of New Orleans,
       Louisiana.  U.S. troops will be called upon to put down the
       uprising of over 400 slaves, which will last three days.

1837 - Fanny M. Jackson is born a slave in Washington, DC.  She will
       become the first African American woman college graduate in
       the United States when she graduates from Oberlin College in
       1865. After graduation, she will become a teacher at the
       Institute for Colored Youths in Philadelphia.  In 1869, she
       will become the first African American woman to head an
       institution of higher learning when she is made Principal of
       the Institute.  In the fall of 1881, Fanny will marry the Rev.
       Levi Jenkins Coppin, a minister of the African Methodist
       Episcopal Church. The marriage will open a wealth of
       missionary opportunities for Fanny. When her husband is made
       Bishop of Cape Town, South Africa, Fanny will accompany him
       and travel thousands of miles organizing mission societies.
       She will join the ancestors on January 21, 1913 in
       Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In 1926, a facility for teacher
       training in Baltimore, Maryland will be named Fanny Jackson
       Coppin Normal School in her honor.  The school is known today
       as Coppin State University.

1867 - Overriding President Andrew Johnson's veto, Congress passes
       legislation giving African Americans in the District of
       Columbia the right to the vote.

1912 - The African National Congress, in South Africa, is formed.

1975 - The state-owned Alabama Educational Television Commission has
       its application for license renewal denied by the Federal
       Communications Commission because of racial discrimination
       against African Americans in employment and programming.
Title: Re: Ourstory
Post by: True Father Sankofa on January 08, 2012, 10:31:13 pm
Did you know...

Black people even pioneered fishing and sailing. 90,000 year old harpoons and other tools found in northeastern Zaire. Even before that, Blacks traveled the seas to populate the Pacific Islands.

Blacks started astronomy. Ruins of a 300 BC astronomical observatory were found at Namoratunga in Kenya. A stone observatory over 5,000 years old was found west of Egypt.
Black people were the first to engage in mining. A 43,000 year old hematite mine was found in Swaziland at Bomvu Ridge.

Black people were the first to develop agriculture. There are 12,000 year old tools and evidence of crop cultivation in Egypt’s Western Desert. Other agricultural sites in Egypt have been dated to 18,000 BC.

There’s nothing new under the sun. Most modern inventions, techniques, cultural practices and ideas can be traced back to ancient origins. And when you go back to the original of all things, you find Black people.

Black people developed the first martial arts. One of the earliest papyrus scrolls from Egypt shows a system of attacks and takedowns that has yet to be further explored.
Blacks developed the first economic systems. Cowrie shells are brightly colored shells that served as one of the earliest forms of money in ancient Africa, predating gold coins (which were also developed by Blacks)
For more jewels like this cop the 365 Days of REAL Black History calendar by Supreme Design Publishing
http://supremedesignonline.com/blackhistory365.html
Title: 1/9
Post by: True Father Sankofa on January 09, 2012, 10:52:08 pm
Ourstory 1/9

1866 - Fisk College is established in Nashville, Tennessee. Rust
College is established in Holly Springs, Mississippi.
Lincoln University is established in Jefferson City,
Missouri.

1901 - Edward Mitchell Bannister joins the ancestors in Providence,
Rhode Island. Challenged to become an artist after reading a
newspaper article deriding African Americans' ability to
produce art, he disproved that statement throughout a
distinguished art career.

1906 - Poet and author, Paul Laurence Dunbar, joins the ancestors
after succumbing to tuberculosis. Dunbar was so talented and
versatile that he succeeded in two worlds. He was so adept
at writing verse in Black English that he became known as the
"poet of his people," while also cultivating a white audience
that appreciated the brilliance and value of his work.
"Majors and Minors" (1895), Dunbar's second collection of
verse, was a remarkable work containing some of his best poems
in both Black and standard English. When the country's
reigning literary critic, William Dean Howells reviewed
"Majors and Minors" favorably, Dunbar became famous. And
Howells' introduction in "Lyric of Lowly Life" (1896) helped
make Dunbar the most popular African American writer in
America at the time.

1922 - Ahmed Sekou Toure, first president of Guinea, born.

1935 - Earl G. Graves is born in Brooklyn, New York. He will become
president and chief executive officer of Earl G. Graves, Ltd.,
the publisher of "Black Enterprise" magazine, a successful
entrepreneur, and one of the strongest advocates for
African American business.

1946 - Lyric poet, Countee Cullen joins the ancestors in New York City
at the age of 42. His several volumes of poetry include
"Color" (1925); "Copper Sun" (1927); "The Black Christ" (1929);
and "On These I Stand" (published posthumously, 1947), his
selection of poems by which he wished to be remembered. Cullen
also wrote a novel dealing with life in Harlem, "One Way to
Heaven" (1931), and a children's book, "The Lost Zoo" (1940).

1967 - The Georgia legislature, bowing to legal decisions and national
pressure, seats state Representative Julian Bond, a critic of
the Vietnam War.

1970 - After 140 years of unofficial racial discrimination, the Mormon
Church issues an official statement declaring that Blacks were
not yet to receive the priesthood "for reasons which we
believe are known to God, but which He has not made fully
known to man."

1989 - Time, Inc. agrees to sell NYT Cable for $420 million to Comcast
Corporation, Lenfest Communications, and an investment group
led by African American entrepreneur J. Bruce Llewellyn. It is
the largest cable TV acquisition by an African American.
Title: Re: Ourstory
Post by: True Father Sankofa on January 12, 2012, 05:47:05 pm
1879 - British troops invade Zululand from Natal, confident that they
       could crush the Zulu forces armed with spears and shields.
       However, the well-trained Zulu army repulses the initial
       attack, killing over 1300 British troops in the Battle of
       Isandlwana. But that success will exhaust the Zulu army, and
       before Cetshwayo could mount a counteroffensive into Natal,
       British troops from around the Empire will be rushed to
       southern Africa, where their advanced weaponry will bring them
       ultimate victory in the six-month Anglo-Zulu war. The British
       will conclude their aggressive venture by dividing up Zululand
       among thirteen pro-British chiefs, effectively destroying the
       Zulu kingdom.

1890 - Mordecai Wyatt Johnson is born in Paris, Tennessee.  He will
       become the first African American president of Howard
       University in 1926, a position he will hold for 34 years. He
       will also be a recipient of the NAACP's Spingarn Medal in 1929.
       He will retire in 1960, and will join the ancestors on
       September 11, 1976 in Washington, DC.

1920 - James Farmer is born in Marshall, Texas.  He will become an
       African American civil rights leader and activist.  He will
       found the Committee on Racial Equality in 1942 and later
       change the name of the organization to the Congress of Racial
       Equality. Farmer and CORE will be the architects of the
       "Freedom Rides" that will lead to the desegregation of over
       100 bus terminals in the South.  He will become a major player
       during the Civil Rights movement.  He will be awarded the
       Congressional Medal of Freedom in 1998 by President Bill
       Clinton.  He will join the ancestors on July 9, 1999 in
       Fredericksburg, Virginia, at the age of 79.

1946 - George Duke is born in San Rafael, California, and will be
       reared in Marin City, a working class section of Marin County.
       He will become a major recording artist, heavily influenced by
       Miles Davis and the soul-jazz sound of Les McCann and Cal
       Tjader.  He and a young singer named Al Jarreau will form a
       group becoming the house band at San Francisco's Half Note
       Club.  Over the years, George will work with Sonny Rollins,
       Dexter Gordon, Frank Zappa, Cannonball Adderley, Nancy Wilson,
       Joe Williams, and Dizzy Gillespie.  He will be a prolific
       songwriter and producer.

1948 - The United States Supreme Court decision (Sipuel v. Oklahoma
       State Board of Regents) said a state must afford African
       Americans "an opportunity to commence the study of law at a
       state institution at the same time as [other] citizens."

1952 - The University of Tennessee admits its first African American
       student.

1959 - Berry Gordy borrows $800 from a family loan fund to form Motown
       Records.  The record company's first releases will appear on
       the Tamla label.

.1964 - Leftist rebels in Zanzibar begin their successful revolt against
       the government.

1965 - Noted playwright Lorraine Hansberry joins the ancestors, after
       succumbing to cancer in New York City at the age of 34, while
       her second play, "The Sign in Sidney Brustein's Window," is
       playing on Broadway.  Her first and most famous work, "A
       Raisin in the Sun," brought her wide acclaim on Broadway,
       earned her the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for best
       play, and became a motion picture starring Sidney Poitier,
       Ruby Dee, and Claudia McNeil.

1971 - The Congressional Black Caucus is organized.

1982 - A commemorative stamp of Ralph Bunche is issued by the U.S.
       Postal Service as part of its Great Americans series.

1990 - Civil Rights activist Rev. Al Sharpton is stabbed in Brooklyn,
       New York, in Bensonhurst.

1995 - In Port-au-Prince, Haiti, an American soldier is killed and
       another wounded during a shootout with a former Haitian army
       officer who also was killed.

1995 - Qubilah Shabazz, the daughter of Malcolm X, is arrested in
       Minneapolis, Minnesota on charges that she had tried to hire
       a hit man to kill Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. The
       charges will later be dropped.
2010 – A 7.0 magnitude earthquake devastates the island nation of Haiti
Title: 1/13
Post by: True Father Sankofa on January 13, 2012, 11:45:05 am
1869 - A National Convention of African American leaders meets in
       Washington, DC.  Frederick Douglass is elected president.

1869 - The first African American labor convention is held when the
       Convention of the Colored National Labor Union takes place.

1873 - P.B.S. Pinchback relinquishes the office of governor, saying
       at the inauguration of the new Louisiana governor: "I now have
       the honor to formally surrender the office of governor, with
       the hope that you will administer the government in the
       interests of all the people [and that] your administration
       will be as fair toward the class that I represent, as mine has
       been toward the class represented by you."



1966 - Robert C. Weaver becomes the first African American appointed
       to a presidential cabinet position, when President Lyndon B.
       Johnson names him to head the newly created Department of
       Housing and Urban Development.

1979 - A commemorative stamp of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is issued
       by the U.S. Postal Service as part of its Black Heritage USA
       commemorative series.  The stamp of the slain civil rights
       leader is the second in the series.

1979 - Singer Donnie Hathaway joins the ancestors after jumping from
       the 15th floor of New York's Essex House hotel.

1982 - Hank Aaron and Frank Robinson are elected to the Baseball Hall
       of Fame.

1983 - Citing Muhammad Ali's deteriorating physical condition, the AMA
       calls for the banning of prizefighting because new evidence
       suggests that chronic brain damage is prevalent in boxers.
1987 - Even Mecham, then governor of Arizona, rescinded the gubernatorial decree by Gov. Bruce Babbit that established the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday.

1989 - Sterling Allen Brown joins the ancestors in Washington, DC.  He
       had devoted his life to the development of an authentic black
       folk literature. He was one of the first scholars to identify
       folklore as a vital component of the black aesthetic and to
       recognize its validity as a form of artistic expression. He
       worked to legitimatize this genre in several ways.  As a
       critic, he exposed the shortcomings of white literature that
       stereotyped blacks and demonstrated why black authors are best
       suited to describe the Black experience. As a poet, he mined
       the rich vein of black Southern culture, replacing primitive
       or sentimental caricatures with authentic folk heroes drawn
       from Afro-American sources.  He was associated with Howard
       University for almost sixty years.

1990 - L. Douglas Wilder of Virginia is inaugurated as governor and
       becomes the first elected African American governor in the
       United States.  Wilder won the election in Virginia by a mere
       7,000 votes in a state once the heart of the Confederacy.
       Later in the year, he will receive the NAACP's Spingarn Medal
       for his lifetime achievements.

2010 - Rhythm & Blues singer Teddy Pendergrass, one of the most electric
       and successful figures in music until a car crash 28 years ago
       left him in a wheelchair, joins the ancestors after
       succumbing to colon cancer at the age of 59.
Title: Re: Ourstory
Post by: Reginald Hudlin on January 27, 2012, 04:53:01 pm
Date:
Fri, 1939-01-27
*Julius Lester was born on this date in 1939. He is an African American educator, musician and writer.

Born in St. Louis, Missouri, he is the son of a Methodist minister. As a teenager, Lester lived in Nashville, Tennessee, spending most summers at his grandmother's farm in Arkansas. Growing up, he wanted to be a musician. In 1960, Lester graduated from Fisk University with a degree in English. Moving to New York City, he recorded two albums, performed with Pete Seeger, Phil Ochs, and Judy Collins, and worked as a radio announcer. His first book was The 12-String Guitar as Played by Leadbelly: an Instructional Manual, dealt with Black folk music.

He also was active in the Civil Rights movement, joining the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee as head of their photo department. Since then his photographs from that time have been included in an exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution and are part of the permanent collection at Howard University. Some of his photographs have been in group shows at Pivot Media, Florence, Mass., and Valley Photographers, Springfield, Mass. In 1969, Lester published two works as a children's author. They were To Be a Slave, and Black Folktales. His subsequent writings continued to show his interest in African American history, folklore, and politics.

Over the years, he has published 35 books; 7 non-fiction, 1 book of poetry, 2 novels, and 25 children's books. Among the awards these books have received are the Newberry Honor Medal, the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award, National Book Award Finalist, National Jewish Book Award Finalist, National Book Critics Circle Award Finalist, and Boston Globe/Horn Book Award. Numerous titles have also appeared on the New York Times Outstanding Book list and American Library Association Notable Book list. Lester also has published over 200 hundred essays and reviews in such publications as the New York Times Book Review, New York Times Op-Ed Page, Boston Globe, Village Voice, The New Republic, Forward, and the Los Angeles Times Book Review.

Lester joined the faculty of the University of Massachusetts in 1971 and is currently a professor in the Judaic and Near Eastern Studies Department, and adjunct professor of History. In 1974, while on retreat at the Trappist monasteryin Spencer, Massachusetts, one of the monks told him, "When you know the name by which God knows you, you will know who you are." Lester searched with the passion of one seeking the Eternal Beloved. He found that his name was Yaakov Daniel Ben Avraham v'Sarah. And that he was a Jew; he converted to Judaism during that time.

Lester has been honored with all three of the university's most prestigious faculty awards: The Distinguished Teacher's Award, the Faculty Fellowship Award for Distinguished Research and Scholarship, and the Chancellor's Medal, the university's highest honor. The Council for Advancement and Support of Education selected him as the Massachusetts State Professor of the Year in 1988. Also for ten years he was lay religious leader of Beth El Synagogue in St. Johnsbury, Vermont.

Julius Lester has five children and lives with his wife and one cat on a secluded twelve acres in a small town in western Massachusetts.
Title: 2/6
Post by: True Father Sankofa on February 06, 2012, 11:13:36 pm
Ourstory 2/6

1810 - The Argentine national hero from Buenos Aires, Argentina,
       Antonio Ruiz (El Negro Falucho), joins the ancestors, fighting
       for his country.

1820 - The first organized emigration back to Africa begins when
       86 free African Americans leave New York Harbor aboard the
       Mayflower of Liberia. They are bound for the British colony
       of Sierra Leone, which welcomes free African Americans as well as fugitive slaves.

1867 - The Anglo-American merchant George Peabody, founds the $ 2 million Peabody Education Fund.  It is the first philanthropy
       established in the wake of the Civil War to promote free public
       education in 12 Civil War devastated southern states for whites and African Americans.  The Peabody Fund will provide funding for construction, endowments, scholarships, teacher and industrial education for newly freed slaves.

1898 - Haywood Hall is born in South Omaha, Nebraska.  After
       relocating to Minneapolis, Minnesota with his family, he will
       join the U.S. Army.  He will serve with the 370th Infantry in
       France during World War I. Returning to Chicago, Illinois after
       the war, he will be active as a Black Nationalist, becoming a
       member of the African Blood Brotherhood and the Communist Party of the USA. In 1925, he will adopt the pseudonym, Harry
       Haywood. He will be a leading proponent of Black Nationalism,
       self-determination, and the idea that American Blacks are a
       colonized people who should organize themselves into a nation. From 1926 to 1930, he will study in the Soviet Union, where he will meet several anti-colonial revolutionaries, including
       Vietnam's Ho Chi Minh. On his return to the U.S. in 1931, he
       will be chosen to lead the Communist Party's Negro Department, and in 1934 will be elected a member of its politburo. The Spanish Civil War will take him to Spain in 1937, where he
       will fight in a volunteer Communist brigade against General
       Francisco Franco's fascist regime. During World War II, his
       belief in black self-determination and territorial autonomy
       will put him at odds with Communist Party policy, which had
       gravitated away from support for a Black nation in the American south. His agitation on "The Negro Question" led to his
       expulsion from the Party in 1959. He will remain in Chicago,
       supporting Black Nationalist movements such as the Nation of
       Islam. He will publish "Negro Liberation" (1948), a detailed
       analysis of the national character of Black oppression,
       particularly in the South. In his later years he will write
       his memoirs, "Black Bolshevik: Autobiography of an Afro-
       American Communist" (1978). Harry Haywood's greatest
       contribution will be his central role in developing a
       theoretical understanding of the Black nation in the United
       States. He will join the ancestors in January, 1985.

1898 - Melvin B. Tolson, author and educator, is  born in Moberly,
       Missouri.  Educated at Fisk, Lincoln, and Columbia
       Universities, his first volume of poetry, "Rendezvous with
       America," will be published in 1944.  He will be best known
       for "Libretto for the Republic  of Liberia," published in
       1953.

1931 - The Harlem Experimental Theatre Group performs its first play at St. Philips Parish House.  The group's advisory board
       includes famed  actress Rose McClendon, author Jesse Fauset,
       and Grace Nail.

1933 - Walter E. Fauntroy is born in Washington, DC.  He will become a
       civil rights leader and minister.  He will later become the
       non-voting delegate to the United States Congress for the
       District of Columbia from 1971 to 1991.

1945 - Robert Nesta Marley is born in St. Ann, Jamaica to Captain
       Norval and Cedella Marley.  He will become a successful singer along with his group, The Wailers.  Bob Marley and The Wailers were among the earliest to sing Reggae, a blend of Jamaican dance music and American Rhythm & Blues with a heavy dose of Rastafarianism, the Jamaican religion that blends Christian and African teachings.   He will join the ancestors in 1981 at the
       age of 36, succumbing to cancer.  As a result of his
       accomplishments, he will be awarded Jamaica's Order Of Merit, the nation's third highest honor, (April, 1981) in recognition
       of his outstanding contribution to the country's culture.   He
       will be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1991.

1961 - The "jail-in" movement starts in Rock Hill, South Carolina,
       when arrested students demand to be jailed rather than pay
       fines.

1993 - Arthur Ashe, tennis champion, joins the ancestors at the age of 49.  He succumbs from complications of AIDS, contracted from a transfusion during a earlier heart surgery.

Date:
Fri, 1939-01-27
*Julius Lester was born on this date in 1939. He is an African American educator, musician and writer.

Born in St. Louis, Missouri, he is the son of a Methodist minister. As a teenager, Lester lived in Nashville, Tennessee, spending most summers at his grandmother's farm in Arkansas. Growing up, he wanted to be a musician. In 1960, Lester graduated from Fisk University with a degree in English. Moving to New York City, he recorded two albums, performed with Pete Seeger, Phil Ochs, and Judy Collins, and worked as a radio announcer. His first book was The 12-String Guitar as Played by Leadbelly: an Instructional Manual, dealt with Black folk music.

He also was active in the Civil Rights movement, joining the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee as head of their photo department. Since then his photographs from that time have been included in an exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution and are part of the permanent collection at Howard University. Some of his photographs have been in group shows at Pivot Media, Florence, Mass., and Valley Photographers, Springfield, Mass. In 1969, Lester published two works as a children's author. They were To Be a Slave, and Black Folktales. His subsequent writings continued to show his interest in African American history, folklore, and politics.

Over the years, he has published 35 books; 7 non-fiction, 1 book of poetry, 2 novels, and 25 children's books. Among the awards these books have received are the Newberry Honor Medal, the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award, National Book Award Finalist, National Jewish Book Award Finalist, National Book Critics Circle Award Finalist, and Boston Globe/Horn Book Award. Numerous titles have also appeared on the New York Times Outstanding Book list and American Library Association Notable Book list. Lester also has published over 200 hundred essays and reviews in such publications as the New York Times Book Review, New York Times Op-Ed Page, Boston Globe, Village Voice, The New Republic, Forward, and the Los Angeles Times Book Review.

Lester joined the faculty of the University of Massachusetts in 1971 and is currently a professor in the Judaic and Near Eastern Studies Department, and adjunct professor of History. In 1974, while on retreat at the Trappist monasteryin Spencer, Massachusetts, one of the monks told him, "When you know the name by which God knows you, you will know who you are." Lester searched with the passion of one seeking the Eternal Beloved. He found that his name was Yaakov Daniel Ben Avraham v'Sarah. And that he was a Jew; he converted to Judaism during that time.

Lester has been honored with all three of the university's most prestigious faculty awards: The Distinguished Teacher's Award, the Faculty Fellowship Award for Distinguished Research and Scholarship, and the Chancellor's Medal, the university's highest honor. The Council for Advancement and Support of Education selected him as the Massachusetts State Professor of the Year in 1988. Also for ten years he was lay religious leader of Beth El Synagogue in St. Johnsbury, Vermont.

Julius Lester has five children and lives with his wife and one cat on a secluded twelve acres in a small town in western Massachusetts.

#likebutton
Title: 2/13
Post by: True Father Sankofa on February 13, 2012, 07:21:02 pm
Ourstory 2/13


1635 - America's first public school, the Boston Latin School, opened in Boston. Black students were excluded from attending.

1882 - Henry Highland Garnet, abolitionist, preacher, diplomat and
        protest leader, joins the ancestors in Monrovia, Liberia at
        the age of 66.

1907 - Wendell P. Dabney establishes "The Union."  The Cincinnati,
        Ohio paper's motto is "For no people can become great without being united, for in union, there is strength."

1920 - The National Association of Professional Baseball Clubs is
        founded by Andrew "Rube" Foster.  They will be called the
        Negro National League.  It will become the first successful
        African American professional baseball league.  Two other
        leagues had previously been started, but failed to last more
        than one season.

1923 - The first African American professional basketball team "The Renaissance" is organized by Robert J. Douglas.  It is named
        after its home court, the Renaissance Casino.  They will
        play from 1923 to 1939 and have a record of 1,588 wins
        against 239 losses.  They will become the first African
        American team in the Basketball Hall of Fame.   
 
1957 - The Southern Leadership Conference is founded at a meeting of ministers in New Orleans, Louisiana.  Martin Luther King, Jr. is elected its first president.  Later in the year its name
will be changed to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

1973 - Gertrude E. Downing and William Desjardin Corner Cleaner Attachment, Patent No. 3,715,772 on February 13, 1973

1976 - General Murtala Mohammed, head of Nigeria, who came to power in 1975 after General Gowon is ousted, joins the ancestors
        after being killed in an unsuccessful counter-coup.  His
        chief of staff, General Olusegun Obasanjo, will assume
        Mohammed's post and his promise to hand over political power to civilian rule.
 
1996 - Minister Louis Farrakhan, of the Nation of Islam, visits Iran
        to celebrate its 1979 revolution ousting the Shah.
Title: 2/14
Post by: True Father Sankofa on February 14, 2012, 08:18:33 pm
1760 - Richard Allen, is born into slavery in Philadelphia,
        Pennsylvania. He will purchase his freedom in 1786 and will
        become a preacher the same year.  He will become the first
        African American ordained in the Methodist Episcopal Church
        (1799), and founder of the African Methodist Episcopal (AME)
        Church in 1816, and first bishop of the AME Church.  He will
        join the ancestors on March 26, 1831.
 
1818 - Possible birth of Frederick Douglass “the Great Emancipator” (some sources say 1817) in Tuckahoe (Talbot County), Maryland, is attributed to this date.  He will state, "I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it... and it is the wish of most masters within my knowledge to keep their slaves thus ignorant." He will be a great African American leader/orator and "one of the giants of nineteenth century America.  He was born Frederick Bailey and will change his name to Douglass after he escapes slavery in 1838. Some accounts say he purchased his freedom in 1845. He became the greatest abolitionist of his time and was also the creator of the “North Star” newspaper. He will join the ancestors on February 20, 1895 in Washington, DC.

1867 - Morehouse College is organized in Augusta, Georgia.  The
        school will be moved later to Atlanta.
 
1867 - New registration law in Tennessee abolishes racial
        distinctions in voting.
 
1936 - The National Negro Congress is organized at a Chicago meeting attended by eight hundred seventeen delegates representing more than five hundred organizations.  Asa Phillip Randolph of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters is elected
president of the new organization.
 
1946 - Gregory Hines is born in New York City.  A child tap-dancing
        star in the group Hines, Hines, and Dad, Hines will lead a
        new generation of tap dancers that will benefit from the
        advice and teaching of such tap legends as Henry Le Tang,
        "Honi" Coles, Sandman Sims, the Nicholas Brothers, and Sammy Davis, Jr.  He will also become a successful actor in movies
including "White Knights," "Tap," and "A Rage in Harlem." He
will join the ancestors on August 9, 2003.

1978 - Maxima Corporation, a computer systems and management company, is incorporated.  Headquartered in Lanham, Maryland, it will become one of the largest African American-owned companies
and earn its founder, chairman and CEO, Joshua I. Smith, chairmanship of the U.S. Commission on Minority Business Development.
Title: 2/23
Post by: True Father Sankofa on February 23, 2012, 03:56:47 pm
Republic Day in Guyana

1841 - Grafton Tyler Brown is born in Harrisburg,  Pennsylvania. A
        lithographer and painter, he will be  considered to be one of
        the first African-American artists in California.  His
        paintings will be collected by the Oakland (California) Museum
        of Art, Washington State Museum, and private individuals. He will join the ancestors on March 3, 1918.
 
1865 - Tennessee adopts a new constitution abolishing slavery.  This will allow Tennessee to become the first former confederate
state to be re-admitted to the Union.

1868 - On this day Dr.William Edward Burghardt DuBois, (W E B DuBois) educator and civil rights advocate, is born in Great Barrington, Mass. He was also a Black sociologist and one of the most important thinkers of the 20th century. A race riot convinced him that he couldn’t confine himself to scholarly research, but to find a way to protest the worsening conditions of Black life in America.

1888 - Horace Pippin is born in West Chester, Pennsylvania.  His right arm crippled in World War I (where he will earn a Purple
Heart), Pippin will paint holding the wrist of his practically useless right arm in his left fist.  The self-taught artist will win wide acclaim for the primitive style and strong emotional content of his work. He will join the ancestors on July 6, 1946.
 
1895 - William H. Heard, AME minister and educator, named minister to Liberia.

1898 - The African American postmaster of Lake City, South Carolina joins the ancestors after being lynched.  His wife and three daughters are shot and maimed for life.

1915 - Death of Robert Smalls (75), Reconstruction congressman, in Beaufort, South Carolina

1921 - Jean-Bedel Bokassa I is born in Bobangul, Oubangul-Chari,
        French Equatorial Africa (present-day Central African
        Republic).  He will become a career soldier who will seize
        power from President David Dacko in a 1965 coup.  In 1972 he will proclaim himself president-for-life, ruling the country with brutal repression, using its revenues for personal enrichment, and crowning himself emperor in 1976.  He will be deposed in September 1979 and was imprisoned for murder in 1986 after seven years in exile.  He will be pardoned in 1993 and will join the ancestors in 1996 at the age of 75.
 
1938 - Ishmael Reed is born in Chattanooga, Tennessee.  He will become a poet (nominated for the National Book Award for "Conjure"), novelist ("Yellow Back," "Radio Broke Down," "Mumbo Jumbo," "Flight to Canada"), and anthologist of the well-received "19 Necromancers from Now" and "The Yardbird Reader, Volume I."

1953 - Bass Singer Melvin Franklin of The Temptations died of complications following a brain seizure in Los Angeles. He was 53.

1972 – Political activist Angela Davis is released from jail. She was not only an activist but also an educator and author and was associated with the Communist Party USA, the Civil Rights Movement and the Black Panthers

1979 - St. Lucia gains its independence from Great Britain.
Title: 2/24
Post by: True Father Sankofa on February 24, 2012, 02:04:15 pm
Oustory 2/24

1964 - Rebecca Lee Crumpler becomes the first black woman to receive an M.D. degree. She graduated from the New England Female Medical College. Rebecca Lee Crumpler was born in 1833. She worked from 1852-1860 as a nurse in Massachusetts.

1966 - Military leaders oust Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana - while on a peace mission, in Beijing, to stop the Vietnam War.

2008 – Raul Castro is elected president of Cuba after his brother Fidel resigns.
Title: in 1939........
Post by: True Father Sankofa on February 24, 2012, 05:49:58 pm
Japanese General Takahashi met with NOI leader Elijah Muhammad and explained that Japan was committed to the Black man’s struggle and wanted to destroy America for all the crimes it had committed against people of color throughout the world.

2 years later the attack on Pearl Harbor.
4 years later the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and Executive Order 9066
Title: 2/28
Post by: True Father Sankofa on February 28, 2012, 03:19:49 pm
(the irony of some of the info associated with Wheatley and Duncan falling on the same dates is rather odd but nothing spooky at all)

1704 - A school for African Americans is opened in New York City by Elias Neau, a Frenchman.
 
1708 - A slave revolt occurs in Newton, Long Island in New York State. Seven whites are killed.  Two African American male slaves and an Indian slave are hanged, and an African American woman is burned alive.
 
1776 - George Washington, in his letter of acknowledgment to Phyllis Wheatley for a poem she wrote for his birthday, says, "I thank you most sincerely for...the elegant line you enclosed...the
style and manner exhibit a striking proof of your poetic talents."
 
1778 - Rhode Island General Assembly in precedent-breaking act
authorizes the enlistment of slaves.
 
1784 - Phyllis Wheatley, poet, joins the ancestors.

1854 - Some 50 slavery opponents meet in Ripon, Wisconsin, to call for the creation of a new political group, which will become the
Republican Party.
 
1859 - Arkansas legislature requires free African Americans to choose between exile and enslavement.

1879 – The “Exodus of 1879” where many Blacks left the South in large numbers heading North starts.

1932 - Richard Spikes invented/patented automatic gear shift.

1940 - United States population: 131,669,275. Black population: 12,865,518 (9.8 per cent). Richard Wright's Native Son published.

1942 - Riots against African Americans occur in Detroit, Michigan at
the Sojourner Truth Homes.
 
1943 - "Porgy and Bess" opens on Broadway with Anne Brown and Todd Duncan in starring roles.
 
1945 - Charles "Bubba" Smith is born in Beaumont, Texas.  He will
become a professional football player with the Baltimore Colts, Oakland Raiders and the Houston Oilers.  After a successful football career, he will become an actor in the "Police Academy" series. He also will become the president and CEO of Vital Aircraft Company,  which solicits the Department of Defense for government contracts.  To illustrate his enduring interest in education and work with children, he will endow an engineering scholarship at his alma mater, Michigan State University.

1948 - Sgt. Cornelius F. Adjetey becomes the first martyr for national independence of Ghana.

1977 - Death of comedian Eddie ("Rochester") Anderson (71).

1984 - Singer Michael Jackson wins eight Grammy Awards in Los Angeles, breaking the previous record of six awards won by a single artist in 1965. Jackson's awards stem from his album "Thriller," which became the biggest selling record of all time with 35 million copies sold since its release in 1982.

1990 - Philip Emeagwali awarded the Gordon Bell Prize (computing's Nobel Prize) for solving one of the twenty most difficult problems in the computing field.
 
1991 - "The Content of our Character," the controversial book on
affirmative action and race relations by Shelby Steele, wins the National Book Critics Circle Award.
 
1998 - Todd Duncan joins the ancestors at his home in Washington, DC, at the age 95.  His ascension is on the fifty-fifth anniversary of his starring role in the Broadway opening of "Porgy and Bess."
Title: Re: Ourstory
Post by: Battle on March 24, 2021, 05:04:33 am
Wednesday, 23rd March Twenty One
(https://i.imgur.com/8JclfBx.jpg)

Phyllis Wheatley


On Being Brought from Africa to America, 1773



'Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land,
Taught my benighted soul to understand
That there's a God, that there's a Saviour too:
Once I redemption neither sought nor knew.
Some view our sable race with a scornful eye,
"Their colour is a diabolic die."
Remember, Christians, Negros, black as Cain,
May be refin'd, and join th' angelic train.
Title: Re: Ourstory
Post by: Battle on April 08, 2021, 09:02:02 am
Thursday, 7th April  Twenty One
(https://i.imgur.com/8JclfBx.jpg)

Phyllis Wheatley

To S. M., a Young African Painter, on Seeing His Works  1753



To show the lab'ring bosom's deep intent,
And thought in living characters to paint,
When first thy pencil did those beauties give,
And breathing figures learnt from thee to live,
How did those prospects give my soul delight,
A new creation rushing on my sight?
Still, wond'rous youth! each noble path pursue;
On deathless glories fix thine ardent view:
Still may the painter's and the poet's fire,
To aid thy pencil and thy verse conspire!
And may the charms of each seraphic theme
Conduct thy footsteps to immortal fame!
High to the blissful wonders of the skies
Elate thy soul, and raise thy wishful eyes.
Thrice happy, when exalted to survey
That splendid city, crown'd with endless day,
Whose twice six gates on radiant hinges ring:
Celestial Salem blooms in endless spring.
Calm and serene thy moments glide along,
And may the muse inspire each future song!
Still, with the sweets of contemplation bless'd,
May peace with balmy wings your soul invest!
But when these shades of time are chas'd away,
And darkness ends in everlasting day,
On what seraphic pinions shall we move,
And view the landscapes in the realms above?
There shall thy tongue in heav'nly murmurs flow,
And there my muse with heav'nly transport glow;
No more to tell of Damon's tender sighs,
Or rising radiance of Aurora's eyes;
For nobler themes demand a nobler strain,
And purer language on th' ethereal plain.
Cease, gentle Muse! the solemn gloom of night
Now seals the fair creation from my sight.