Author Topic: Virginia (Race) Riot  (Read 13982 times)

Offline Battle

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Re: Virginia (Race) Riot
« Reply #75 on: July 16, 2020, 05:05:26 pm »
Thursday, 16th July 2o2o
U.S. Army Seeks to Remove 'Divisive Symbols' From Military Bases
by Reuters




(WASHINGTON, D.C.) - The U.S. Army wants to remove any sort of divisive symbols from military bases, the Army secretary said on Thursday, suggesting the Pentagon was close to a broader policy barring such symbols from all military installations.

A number of military services, including the Marine Corps, have already banned the display of confederate flags even as Individual-1 has said that flying the flag is "freedom of speech."

"Anything that is a divisive symbol, we do want to take those of our installations and that sort of thing out of our formation," Army Secretary Ryan McCarthy told reporters without specifying the symbols.

Asked if that would include specifically identifying confederate flags as divisive symbols, McCarthy, appointed by Individual-1 to his role last year, said:

"We would have any divisive symbols on a no-fly list, if you will."

A spokeswoman for McCarthy said he was not specifically referring to the confederate flag and would defer to the Pentagon on any specific guidance on the issue.

McCarthy added that the Pentagon was close to a decision on a uniform policy for the different services on divisive symbols.

Recent U.S. social unrest has raised new questions about confederate symbols, including monuments, memorials and the flag, as most consider them emblems of slavery, racism and xenophobia.

Supporters say they represent the South’s heritage and culture, and serve as a memorial to confederate casualties during the 1861-65 Civil War.

Individual-1, who has stoked racial divisions as part of his re-election campaign, has criticized the desecration and removal of statues of confederate and other former U.S. leaders to energize his political base.

Last month, Individual-1 rejected renaming military bases named after confederate generals, slapping down Pentagon officials who openly discuss the issue.

Last week the top U.S. general said the military had to take a "hard look" at symbols of the confederacy, including base names.




















Would You Like To Know More?
https://www.usnews.com/news/top-news/articles/2020-07-16/us-army-wants-to-remove-divisive-symbols-from-military-bases

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Re: Virginia (Race) Riot
« Reply #76 on: July 17, 2020, 10:39:39 am »
Thursday, 17th July 2o2o
confederate flag effectively banned from ALL military installations
by Lolita C. Baldor





(WASHINGTON, D.C.) — After weeks of wrangling, the Pentagon is banning displays of the confederate flag on military installations, in a carefully worded policy that doesn’t mention the word ban or that specific flag.

Signed by Defense Secretary Mark Esper on Thursday night, the memo lists the types of flags that may be displayed at military installations.


The confederate flag is not among them — thus barring its display without singling it out in a “ban.”

“We must always remain focused on what unifies us, our sworn oath to the constitution and our shared duty to defend the nation,” Esper’s memo states.

“The flags we fly must accord with the military imperatives of good order and discipline, treating all our people with dignity and respect, and rejecting divisive symbols.”

Acceptable flags listed in the memo include the U.S. and state banners, flags of other allies and partners, the widely displayed POW/MIA flag and official military unit flags.

confederate flags, monuments and military base names have become a national flashpoint in the weeks since the death of George Floyd.


Protesters decrying racism have targeted confederate monuments in multiple cities.

Some state officials are considering taking them down, but they face vehement opposition in some areas.

According to a Defense Department official familiar with the matter, the decision not to name a specific prohibited flag was to ensure the policy would be apolitical and could withstand potential legal challenges based on free speech.



The official said the Executive Mansion is aware of the new policy.

Individual-1 has flatly rejected any notion of changing base names, and has defended the flying of the confederate flag, saying it’s a freedom of speech issue.

According to Esper’s memo, the display of unauthorized flags — such as the confederate banner carried during the Civil War — is acceptable in museums, historical exhibits, works of art or other educational programs.

The Marine Corps has already banned the confederate flag.

General David Berger, the commandant of the Marine Corps, directed his commanders in early June to remove public displays of the confederate battle flag.

That flag, which some embrace as a symbol of heritage, “carries the power to inflame feelings of division” and can weaken the unit cohesion that combat requires, Berger said.

Military commands in South Korea and Japan quickly followed suit.

The new policy does not affect or rescind those bans.

The other three military services were all moving to enact similar bans, but they paused when Esper made it known he wanted a consistent policy across the whole department.

Now they will instead issue this new policy to their troops and employees.

Defense leaders have for weeks been tied in knots over the incendiary issue of banning the confederate flag,

An early draft of the Defense Department plan banned display of the confederate flag, saying the prohibition would preserve “the morale of our personnel, good order and discipline within the military ranks and unit cohesion.”

That version was shelved, and officials have been struggling since then to come up with a policy that would have the same effect but not create political havoc.

Esper discussed the matter with senior leaders during a meeting Wednesday, including some of the legal issues surrounding a variety of bans, which some officials believe could be challenged in court.

The final version is a compromise that enables Esper to enact a ban that passes legal muster and gives military leaders what they want.

According to the official, the new policy doesn’t undo the bans already in place, and service chiefs and secretaries will still be able to enact additional more stringent policies restricting symbols they believe are divisive and harmful to unit cohesion.

The official spoke on condition of anonymity to discuss decisions not yet made public.

Army Secretary Ryan McCarthy told reporters on Thursday that he is still working on a policy that would remove all divisive symbols from Army installations.

He didn’t mention the flag, but said,

“we would have any divisive symbols on a no-fly list.”














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Re: Virginia (Race) Riot
« Reply #77 on: July 23, 2020, 12:54:28 am »
Thursday, 23rd July 2o2o
Military Bases Named for confederate Generals Are An 'Insult to Every American'
by Shanel Dawson







The Rev. Al Sharpton responded to Individual-1’s remarks about him and the renaming of Fort Bragg in North Carolina during an Inside City Hall interview on Tuesday.

Individual-1 on Sunday mocked the renaming of Fort Bragg during an interview and sarcastically suggested that is be renamed after Sharpton.

“Go to the community where Fort Bragg is, in a great state, I love that state. Go to the community, say, 'How do you like the idea of renaming Fort Bragg' and then what are we going to name it?” Individual-1 said.

“We’re going to name it after Rev. Al Sharpton?”

“Well, first of all, I’m flattered that I have free rent in his head,” Sharpton told Errol Louis in response on Tuesday.

“But the fact of the matter is, there are many men and women in the military, which is mostly what you name military bases after, that could be named.

“Name a base after Crispus Attucks, a black man who was the first man of any race to die in the American Revolution,” Sharpton continued.

“Name it after those that fought in segregated barracks for a country that would not give them their freedom when they got home.”

Speaking on Individual-1’s praise of Robert E. Lee, Sharpton said that the U.S. is the only nation that honors Americans who tried to overthrow the country.

“There’s no nation in the world that I can find that honors the people that tried to overthrow that country and name those people and honor them by naming military bases after them. It’s unheard of, and it should be an insult to every American,” he said.

Sharpton, who is organizing a march in Washington, D.C., next month, told NY1 that he is also advocating for the renaming of Alabama's Edmund Pettus Bridge.


Speaking on the legacy of late congressman and civil rights leader John Lewis, who was beaten during a protest on the bridge, Sharpton stressed the importance of rebranding it.


“John Lewis was the most humble. Yet, this man started as a student, beaten as a freedom rider, beaten on the Edmund Pettis Bridge and then went into the Congress for 33 years and was the perfect balance of demonstration and legislation,” he said.

“I think that it would be appropriate among other honors to rename the Edmund Pettis Bridge, who is named after a klansman, that’s who Edmund Pettis was, to rename it the John Lewis Bridge. That’s where he shed blood to get us the right to vote, and that’s why we’re going August 28 to protect that right,” he added.

Sharpton plans on rallying at his "Get Your Knee Off Our Necks" march alongside the National Action Network and other civil rights leaders next month.

The march, which will highlight police reform, voting rights and the census, will take place on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.

























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Re: Virginia (Race) Riot
« Reply #78 on: July 24, 2020, 07:37:49 am »
Friday, 24th July 2o2o
Virginia evicts lee statue and other confederate Monuments from State Capitol
by The Associated Press









(RICHMOND, Virgina) — Virginia has removed from its iconic state capitol the busts and a statue honoring confederate generals and officials.

That includes a bronze statue of General robert r. lee positioned in the same spot where he stood to assume command of the state’s armed forces in the Civil War nearly 160 years ago.

They are the latest confederate symbols to be removed or retired in the weeks since the death of George Floyd at the hands of Minneapolis police sparked a nationwide protest movement.

Virginia House Speaker Eileen Filler-Corn, a Democrat, quietly ordered the Lee statue and busts of generals J.E.B. Stuart, Stonewall Jackson, confederate president Jefferson Davis, and others removed from the historic Old House Chamber.



A moving crew worked through the night Thursday — carefully removing the monuments and their plaques and loading them into a truck and taking them to an undisclosed location.

The stealth approach avoids the possibility of protests or a lawsuit to keep the monuments in place, but may prompt criticism that the monuments were moved without public discussion.

“Virginia has a story to tell that extends far beyond glorifying the confederacy and its participants,” Filler-Corn said in a statement.

“Now is the time to provide context to our Capitol to truly tell the commonwealth’s whole history.”

Designed by Thomas Jefferson, the Virginia State Capitol is the first state capitol to open after the American Revolution and was used as the confederacy’s Capitol during much of the Civil War.

Filler-Corn’s move to remove the confederate generals comes a few weeks after Virginia Governor Ralph Northam ordered the removal of a different Lee monument — a 21-foot (6-meter) bronze equestrian sculpture on Richmond’s historic Monument Avenue.

A lawsuit has delayed that statue’s removal, but other confederate monuments on the street — once one of the most prominent collection of tributes to the confederacy in the nation — have already come down.

And earlier this week, the U.S. House approved a bill to remove statues of Gen. Robert E. Lee and other Confederate leaders from the U.S. Capitol.

The bill’s prospects in the Senate are uncertain.

In Virginia, the Old House Chamber was where lawmakers first met when the Capitol opened in 1788 and was used as the House’s meeting place for more than 100 years before the Capitol building was expanded.

It is not currently used for official purposes when the legislature meets.

The chamber’s history is long and varied — then-Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall presided over a trial there that saw former Vice President Aaron Burr acquitted of treason — but much of the iconography in the room is devoted to confederates.

Virginia delegates voted in the chamber to secede from the Union in April 1861.

A few days later, Lee entered the room to take formal command of the state’s military.

Seven years later, after the South lost the war, it was the same room where a new constitutional convention met that included Black delegates for the first time.

Like many confederate monuments, most of those recently removed from Virginia’s Capitol were erected decades after the Civil War.

They were commissioned and built during the Jim Crow era, when states imposed new segregation laws, and during the “Lost Cause” movement, when historians and others tried to depict the South’s rebellion as a fight to defend states’ rights, not slavery.

The Lee statue was approved in 1928 with the help of then-Governor Harry Byrd, who would later go on to lead the state’s Massive Resistance to racially integrated schools.

It’s $25,000 price tag (about $370,000 currently) was paid for by the state, donations and an in-kind donation from the sculptor.

Busts of Davis and Alexander Stephens, the vice president of the confederacy, were donated to Virginia in the 1950s by Mississippi and Georgia.

Filler-Corn also announced she’s appointed Del. Delores McQuinn to lead a new advisory group to advise the speaker on “possible future actions” of other historical artifacts controlled by the House.

The House does not control Capitol Square, the outdoor area around the Capitol, which includes statues of Stonewall Jackson and William “Extra Billy” Smith, a former governor and confederate brigadier general.

The authority to remove those statues is a matter of debate and may need the full approval of the legislature.


The confederate monuments are not the only tributes to losing causes in and around the Capitol, a building built with slave labor where almost every portrait hanging on the walls is of a white man.

A large statue of Byrd, the arch segregationist, sits on Capitol Square and two portraits hanging prominently in the Capitol.

In the House chamber, directly behind where House speakers preside, is a plaque honoring Nathaniel Bacon.

He was wealthy colonist who led a failed rebellion in the 1670s whose aims including the unfettered killing of Indians and the seizing of their lands.














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Re: Virginia (Race) Riot
« Reply #79 on: July 24, 2020, 12:50:24 pm »
Friday, 24th July 2o2o






Two statues of Christopher Columbus that stood in Chicago parks have been taken down at the direction of Mayor Lori Lightfoot, a week after protesters trying to topple one of the monuments to the Italian explorer clashed with police.

Crews used a large crane to remove the statue from its pedestal in downtown Chicago's Grant Park as a small crowd gathered to watch.

That's the park where police and protesters clashed a week ago.

Hours later, a second statue of Columbus was removed from Arrigo Park in Chicago's Little Italy neighborhood.

The Democratic mayor's office said in a statement issued after the statues were taken down that both were "temporarily removed" at the mayor's direction "in response to demonstrations that became unsafe for both protesters and police."















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Re: Virginia (Race) Riot
« Reply #80 on: August 21, 2020, 08:34:50 am »
Friday, 21st August 2o2o
After more than 160 years, Central Park gets 1st statue honoring real-life women
by Katie Kindelan








For the first time in its over 160-year history, New York City's famous Central Park will have a statue commemorating real-life women.

A statue featuring women's rights pioneers Sojourner Truth, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, all New Yorkers, will be unveiled on August 26th 2020 in the same month that the United States celebrates the 100th anniversary of women gaining the right to vote.

"The honor of being able to do this is profound," said Women's Rights Pioneers Monument sculptor Meredith Bregmann, who was picked for the project from a pool of nearly 100 entries.

"It astonishes me and it fills me with pride."

Bregmann, who lived most of her life in New York City and now lives in Connecticut, was commissioned for the project by Monumental Women, an all-volunteer nonprofit made up of women's rights advocates, historians and community leaders.

"The sad thing is that so many people for so many years never even noticed that real women were missing in Central Park, and what does that say about the invisibility of women and the lack of recognition that women face in this country and this world for the hard work that they have done and will always do," said Pam Elam, president of Monumental Women.

"We said, 'If the city is not going to do what it should in terms of representing all of the people in its public spaces, then our small, all-volunteer, nonprofit group will step up and do that."

Monumental Women had to fight through paperwork, layers of bureaucracy and doubts that a statue representing real women was needed in the park, including comments like,

"Are you sure you want a statue? How about a nice garden?," according to Elam.

The group also had to raise more than $1 million in private funding to make the statue a reality.

They were helped in the effort by Girl Scout troops that donated more than $10,000 in cookie sales, and by New York Life, which donated a $500,000 challenge grant because of its connection to Susan B. Anthony.

The women's rights advocate used the cash value of her New York Life insurance policy in 1900 to guarantee admission for the first female students into the University of Rochester, according to New York Life.

Anthony, Truth and Stanton were chosen for the statue because they were "All women who dedicated their lives to fighting for equality and justice and they often shared the same stages and attended the same meetings, so it's only fair that they share the same pedestal," according to Elam.

Bergmann said she hopes the statue of the three women in conversation, which will sit in the Mall in Central Park, inspires people who see it to "lead larger and more valuable lives."

"Although there are three figures, they're not just in place, they're interacting very closely," she said.

"They're kind of caught in motion, in conversation, in debate, and it's up to you to decide what they're saying, what they just said, what they're going to see."

When the statue is unveiled on August 26th 2020, Monumental Women plans to also unveil a challenge to cities and towns across the country to "reimagine their public spaces" and include tributes to women and people of color, according to Elam.

She hopes the work Monumental Women did to add a statue in Central Park can be a blueprint for groups in other cities and that the statue itself "energizes" people to "move history forward."

"We want people to look at this beautiful work of art and feel both inspired and energized to carry on the fight of those women, the fight of all the women who came before us and achieve full equality for women in our lifetimes," said Elam.

"We want people to go away with a sense of urgency that we must have a responsibility to move history forward."














Would You Like To Know More?
https://www.goodmorningamerica.com/news/story/160-years-central-park-1st-statue-honoring-real-72440042

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Re: Virginia (Race) Riot
« Reply #81 on: September 01, 2020, 12:04:37 am »
Tuesday, 1st September 2o2o (originally published Wednesday, 19th August 2o2o)
A 1,000 square foot mosaic of Ida B. Wells is installed at Union Station in DC
by Amanda Jackson








It's been 100 years since American women were granted the right to vote.

To commemorate this milestone, a massive mosaic of suffragist and civil rights leader, Ida B. Wells, is being installed on the floor of Union Station in Washington DC.

But if you look closely, Wells isn't the only woman being honored.

The portrait is comprised of thousands of historical photos featuring woman who fought for the right for women to vote, according to the Women's Suffrage Centennial Commission (WSCC).

"What we are able to do with this art installation is that we can show the depths of this movement," Anna Laymon, WSCC Executive Director, told CNN on Tuesday.

"It wasn't just one woman who fought for the right to vote it was thousands."

The 19th Amendment was ratified on August 18th, 1920, granting the right for women to vote.

It took decades of marching and lobbying by generations of suffrage advocates to get the amendment passed.

The mural, titled "Our Story: Portraits of Change," was designed by artist Helen Marshall of the People's Picture, produced by Christina Korp of Purpose Entertainment, and commissioned by the WSCC.

The project has been in in the works for the past year, according to Laymon.

"We are so proud to highlight and honor Ida B. Wells as the main subject of the Our Story photo mosaic," Christina Korp, Executive Producer of Purpose Entertainment, said in a press release.

"Her story as a suffragist, civil rights activist and investigative journalist is as relevant today as it was 100 years ago."

Union Station is an important location for the woman's suffrage movement.

In 1919, it was where suffragists who had been jailed for picketing the White House began their train tour, according to the press release.

It will take a team of around six people to install the giant 1,000 square foot installation on the floor of the station, according to Korp.

It will be installed August 24th and displayed till August 28th.

"We hope this project will inspire the public to learn more about her and countless others featured within the digital interactive mosaic online," Korp said.

Visitors at Union Station will get a chance to be fully immersed in the art exhibit by walking over and exploring each image.

"In ancient cultures, floor mosaics were in public places and revered and could be studied close up -- that's what we want people to really explore it and see ALL the pictures and even touch them," Marshall told CNN.

People from all over the world will also be able to experience the art work online, where they can zoom in on each photo and read stories about some of the women featured.

"I see this artwork as a truly international commemoration, and I hope that many will enjoy seeing it in person and exploring it in its full interactive glory online in the safety of their homes," Marshall said.

This isn't the first suffrage art piece that Marshall has designed.

In 2018, she created the "Face of Suffrage" floor mural displayed in a railway station in England to celebrate the centenary women's right to vote in United Kingdom.



















Would you Like To Know More?
https://www.cnn.com/travel/article/ida-well-mosaic-mural-union-station-trnd/index.html

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Re: Virginia (Race) Riot
« Reply #82 on: September 20, 2020, 07:35:06 am »
Sunday, 20th September 2o2o
California finally sweeps away most of its tributes to the confederacy. What took so long?
by Kevin Waite








Over the summer, California underwent a historical reckoning perhaps as comprehensive as any state in the nation.

Activists toppled monuments to confederates, to Spanish missionaries, even to Union generals.

Now the process is drawing to a close in a rather unspectacular fashion — not because activists lack the initiative for further action, but because there are almost no monuments left to remove.

That California, a progressive state more than 1,500 miles from the nearest major Civil War theater, would sweep away tributes to dead confederates seems self-evident.

Yet this summer’s rash of monument removals was the culmination of a long-fought and hard-won battle.

Until recently, California housed far more confederate monuments and place names than any state beyond the South.

Other free states contained at most a small handful of rebel tributes, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center’s extensive database.

California, in contrast, established more than a dozen such markers over the course of the 20th century.

Californians began fighting over the memory of the Civil War not long after robert e. lee surrendered the main rebel army in April 1865.

The debate was especially intense in Los Angeles, home to a vocal base of secessionists.

“The Civil War continued to rage” in postbellum Los Angeles, according to Horace Bell, a Union veteran who returned to Southern California shortly after the conflict.

When Bell passed by, fellow white Angelenos often spat:

“The idea … of a Los Angeles man of your stamp fighting on the side of the Blacks!”

According to his own estimates, Bell wound up in as many as 40 brawls for his wartime loyalties.

And in 1882, L.A. went so far as to elect a former confederate army captain as mayor.

Over the coming decades, thousands of white Southern migrants arrived in California.

Although they represented a minority of the state’s overall population, they wielded outsized influence in the struggle over Civil War memory.

They waged their campaigns through well-funded memorial associations, particularly the United Daughters of the confederacy.

In 1925, L.A.’s confederate memorial associations erected the first rebel tribute on the West Coast.

The monument, a six-foot granite pillar in Hollywood Cemetery, saluted several dozen confederate veterans who had moved to Southern California after the war.

They were buried in the surrounding cemetery plot.

Several years later, the United Daughters of the confederacy turned a San Gabriel mansion into the first and only rebel veterans rest home outside the former slave states and territories.

They called it Dixie Manor.

Some 500 people gathered to celebrate the home’s dedication in 1929.

Controversy had erupted in San Diego several years earlier, when confederate devotees erected a monument to the jefferson davis Highway.

It marked the western terminus of a proposed coast-to-coast road system named in honor of the rebel commander in chief.

Almost immediately, Union veterans began protesting.

Particularly galling was the fact that the monument sat directly in front of the U.S. Grant Hotel, which had been built by the war hero’s son.

The veterans succeeded in having the Davis Highway monument hauled off in 1926, less than a year after it was installed.

But the confederacy would rise again in San Diego.

Roughly three decades later, amid a national controversy over school desegregation, the United Daughters of the confederacy reinstalled a marker to the Davis Highway.

Once again, it stood across from the U.S. Grant Hotel, as if to taunt the old Union commander.

It was one of five highway markers to the rebel president in California.

Shortly thereafter, San Diego named one of its schools for confederate Gen. robert e. lee — the second of its kind within the state.

(The first was in Long Beach).

By hanging the name of a slaveholder on an educational institution, San Diego rose a not-so-subtle protest to the ongoing process of school integration.

By the early 21st century, California boasted at least 18 confederate monuments and place names.

In addition to his highway markers, Davis also had a peak near Lake Tahoe named in his honor.

And along with his two schools, Lee also had four redwood trees named after him.

Additionally, California housed the township of confederate Corners in Monterey County; a scenic network of hills named for the confederate warship Alabama; a plaque to Robert S. Garnett, the first rebel general killed in the Civil War; and three large stone memorials to the common confederate soldier in Hollywood, San Diego and Orange County.

The driving force behind California’s rebel landscape, the United Daughters of the confederacy, had 18 chapters in the state as recently as 1999.

For comparison, Ohio and New York — the free states where, after California, the organization was most active — had only three chapters each.

These monuments would, most likely, still be standing if not for a series of violent acts that finally focused public outrage on Confederate commemorations.

Three major flash points inspired an ongoing reckoning with the American past — the murder of nine worshippers at one of the nation’s oldest African American churches in 2015; the white supremacist rally around a statue to robert e. lee in Charlottesville, Va., two years later; and the killing of George Floyd in May.

As a result, in California there are no longer any schools named after robert e. lee, or peaks after jefferson davis, or memorials to confederate soldiers.

Most of the Davis Highway markers are gone as well.

Although Lee’s trees still technically bear the rebel general’s name — changing their designation requires approval from Congress or the director of the National Parks Service — identifying signage has been removed.

After nearly a century of debate, California has nearly been purged of its confederate tributes.

Yet perhaps the most surprising aspect of this history is not that these monuments finally fell during our long, hot summer of protest.

It’s that they survived for as long as they did.





















Would You Like To Know More?
https://www.latimes.com/opinion/story/2020-09-20/california-confederacy-monuments-fall

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Re: Virginia (Race) Riot
« Reply #83 on: September 22, 2020, 12:03:37 pm »
Tuesday, 22nd September 2o2o (originally published Saturday, 27th June 2o2o)
The Senate Filibuster Is Another Monument to White Supremacy
by David Litt






The statues are falling.

On Monument Avenue in Richmond, Virginia, confederate President jefferson davis has been yanked off his pedestal.

In Philadelphia, the former mayor and virulent racist Frank Rizzo was transferred to a storage facility.

Across the Atlantic, a crowd of protesters grabbed Edward Colston, a 17th-century slave trader, and dumped him into Bristol Harbor.

Yet there is another relic of the jim crow era that has, thus far, been largely overlooked.

The Senate filibuster—the rule that allows a minority of senators to block nearly every piece of legislation—may not have the literal weight of stone or metal.

But it, too, is a direct legacy of segregation, and it remains a tool for maintaining systemic racism.

In this moment of long-overdue reckoning, it’s time for the filibuster to go.

In fairness, the filibuster was not explicitly designed as a tool for white supremacists.

In fact, the filibuster was not “designed” at all.

It was created by accident, part of a sloppy revision of the Senate rule book by Aaron Burr just a few months after his famous duel with Alexander Hamilton.

In a careless effort to remove what he thought was redundant language, he cut the “previous question motion,” which would have allowed a majority of lawmakers to end debate and force a vote on a bill.

For more than a century, Burr’s mistake gave even a tiny handful of senators the power to block a bill indefinitely.

But in 1917, Woodrow Wilson (himself an ardent segregationist) demanded reform.

“The Senate of the United States is the only legislative body in the world which cannot act when its majority is ready for action,” he complained.

“A little group of willful men, representing no opinion but their own, have rendered the great Government of the United States helpless and contemptible.”

Many senators favored eliminating the filibuster altogether, but in the end they compromised and created a new Senate rule:

If two-thirds of the upper chamber came together, a speaker could be cut off and a filibuster broken.

This was the first appearance of the filibuster in its modern form, though the required number of votes was later reduced to three-fifths.

A grumpy trio or quartet could no longer slam the brakes on the entire legislative process, but a faction of senators—a group larger than a handful but smaller than a majority—could still kill any bill it pleased.

One faction in particular was large and well organized enough to make good use of the new filibuster: southern segregationist Democrats.

And the single issue on which they were most unified—and to which they were most adamantly opposed—was civil rights.

Consider what happened in the early 1920s, when the Massachusetts Republican Henry Cabot Lodge introduced a bill to combat lynching murders.

At the time, most lawmakers were not pro-lynching murders.

An anti-lynching murder bill had passed the House and enjoyed majority support in the Senate as well.

But to take advantage of that majority support, the bill needed to be voted on.

To ensure that this never happened, southern senators executed what can best be described as a ballet of obstruction.

First, to slow the proceedings, they demanded that the Senate journal be read out loud each day in full, something technically required by the chamber’s rules but rarely enforced.

Then the filibusterers began offering amendments to the journal during the reading.

These could be as meaningless as inserting a senator’s middle name or changing a single word in a speech.

Yet the vote on each of these amendments could be filibustered.

After a week of fruitless exhortation, Lodge realized that he had only two options: abandon the rest of his legislative priorities or scuttle the anti-lynching murder bill.

He scuttled the bill.

Over the next few decades, Congress would consider nearly 200 anti-lynching murder measures.

Thanks to the unique procedures of the Senate, and the unique enthusiasm with which they were exploited by jim crow’s supporters, not one became law.

In 2005, the Senate passed a resolution formally apologizing to lynching murder victims for its inaction.

The text was brutally honest about the horrors of what it called “the ultimate expression of racism in the United States following Reconstruction.”

Yet the apology made no mention of why lynching murders had been allowed to persist.

Americans were left to conclude that the Senate had examined a half century’s worth of anti-lynching murder bills and, upon careful consideration, dismissed them as unwise.

In fact, this wasn’t the case at all.

The bills weren’t rejected by a majority of the sober, cautious Senate.

There was nothing to reject.

They never received a vote.

Nor were anti-lynching murder measures the only bills to fall victim to the filibuster.

For nearly a half century after Wilson’s reforms created the modern filibuster, not a single substantial civil-rights bill became law.

Even the “talking” filibuster—the marathon speech made famous in Mr. Smith Goes to Washington—is intertwined with racism.

The longest filibuster on record, strom thurmond’s in 1957, was delivered to protest civil-rights legislation.

In fact, and somewhat ironically, it was precisely because the filibuster was such an effective tool for defending segregation, and because segregationists in turn became the filibuster’s staunchest defenders, that obstruction on other issues was relatively rare.

Most senators didn’t want to legitimize jim crow’s favorite procedural tactic.

The result was a kind of bargain—or at least a reluctant acceptance—that shaped our democracy for decades.

On the one hand, the Senate helped build the America we have today, passing the bulk of the New Deal, the Marshall Plan, the Interstate Highway System, and plenty of other big, ambitious bills.

Yet, during that same time, the former confederacy was allowed to maintain a system of autocratic, racist, one-party rule.

Americans were murdered, unjustly imprisoned, denied the right to vote, and treated by their own country as subhuman—all because of the Senate’s unique and often venerated procedure.

Today, the filibuster continues to hold back progress on civil rights.

Because the chamber’s two-senators-per-state structure favors smaller-population rural states, disproportionately white states have disproportionate power in the Senate.

Combine this with the current 60-vote threshold for passing legislation, and it’s not hard to see why racial justice is a far more urgent priority for Americans than it is for senators.

In fact, just two weeks ago, Kentucky Senator rand paul used a parliamentary delaying trick to hold up an anti-lynching murder bill.

The segregationists of a century ago would be proud.

Yet there is a fundamental difference between the obstruction that frustrates leaders in our era and the obstruction that got the better of Henry Cabot Lodge.

We don’t need to choose between having a democracy and allowing racist systems to continue.

In fact, today, we face the opposite choice: self-government and anti-racism on one hand; autocracy and white nationalism on the other.

Doing away with the Senate filibuster would not, of course, mean the end of systemic racism. But it would make anti-racist policies far easier to pass than they are today, and it would help dismantle both the legacy and machinery of jim crow.

Debates about long-venerated icons are never simple, and there will always be those who argue that “protecting our heritage” is more important than rising above the worst failings of our past.

But with the prospect of change on the horizon, Americans should approach the potential collapse of the filibuster the same way they increasingly view the fall of Davis, Rizzo, Colston, and so many others.

Tear it down.

It’s time.














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Re: Virginia (Race) Riot
« Reply #84 on: September 26, 2020, 07:13:03 am »
Saturday, 26th September 2o2o
Paris names park after Black woman who resisted slavery
by Associated Press








(PARIS) — The city of Paris inaugurated a public garden Saturday honoring a woman who fought for the liberation of slaves on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe.

Mayor Anne Hidalgo also announced plans to erect a statue to the woman, Solitude, at the site in northeastern Paris. It will be the city’s first statue honoring a Black woman.

Amid global protests against monuments to white men linked to colonialism or the slave trade, French leaders have resisted taking down statues but pushed instead to design new monuments to more diverse, lesser-known historical figures.

Solitude was born around 1772 to an African slave who was raped by a white sailor on the ship bringing her to the Antilles, according to newspaper Le Monde.

She won her freedom after the French Revolution, but then Napoleon reinstated slavery in French colonies and Solitude joined Guadeloupe's resistance movement, according to city hall.

Napoleon's forces arrested a then-pregnant Solitude, and sentenced her to death.

France abolished slavery again in 1848.

Guadeloupe remains part of France, and saw protests earlier this year against racial injustice in the wake of George Floyd's death in the U.S.




















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Re: Virginia (Race) Riot
« Reply #85 on: September 28, 2020, 03:31:02 pm »
Monday, 28th September 2o2o
Alabama City Removes Confederate Monument Following Vote
by Associated Press





(ANNISTON, ALABAMA) — An Alabama city has removed a 115-year-old confederate monument following a vote by city leaders that was prompted by the national reckoning over racial injustice and the legacy of the Civil War.

Workers with the city of Anniston began removing the stone obelisk from the grassy median of a busy avenue late Sunday, city spokesman Jackson Hodges said Monday, and the work only took about 20 minutes.

The City Council voted 4-1 earlier this month to take down the monument to confederate artillery officer John Pelham, who was from nearby Alexandria and died in battle in 1863.

The memorial, which was erected in 1905 while Southern heritage groups were promoting a version of Civil War history that cast the Southern cause as noble, will be taken to a confederate history park. An inscription on the base referred to Pelham as “gallant" and beloved.

City spokesman Jackson Hodges said the obelisk was taken down late at night to prevent traffic problems on the main road through the city.

“It wasn’t to pull a fast one on the community,” he said.

Located about 65 miles (104 kilometers) east of Birmingham, the city of roughly 22,000 people is about 52% Black.

The removal came during a national reckoning of confederate symbols that followed the police killing of George Floyd in Minneapolis in May.

Mayor Jack Draper said he put the removal on the council's agenda in June after hearing from multiple residents on both sides.

“And I think, given where we are right now, with a heightened focus on racial and social injustice, now is the time to actually debate this issue,” Draper told WBRC-TV in June.

The Birmingham suburb of Pelham is named for Pelham, who also was the namesake of an artillery range at the Army's Fort McClellan in Anniston.















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