Author Topic: The 1619 Project  (Read 1232 times)

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Re: The 1619 Project
« Reply #30 on: October 18, 2019, 06:29:09 am »
The 1619 Project



Led by black activists and a Republican Party pushed left by the blatant recalcitrance of white Southerners, the years directly after slavery saw the greatest expansion of human and civil rights this nation would ever see.

In 1865, Congress passed the 13th Amendment, making the United States one of the last nations in the Americas to outlaw slavery.

The following year, black Americans, exerting their new political power, pushed white legislators to pass the Civil Rights Act, the nation’s first such law and one of the most expansive pieces of civil rights legislation Congress has ever passed.

It codified black American citizenship for the first time, prohibited housing discrimination and gave all Americans the right to buy and inherit property, make and enforce contracts and seek redress from courts.

In 1868, Congress ratified the 14th Amendment, ensuring citizenship to any person born in the United States.

Today, thanks to this amendment, every child born here to a European, Asian, African, Latin American or Middle Eastern immigrant gains automatic citizenship.

The 14th Amendment also, for the first time, constitutionally guaranteed equal protection under the law.

Ever since, nearly all other marginalized groups have used the 14th Amendment in their fights for equality (including the recent successful arguments before the Supreme Court on behalf of samesex marriage).

Finally, in 1870, Congress passed the 15th Amendment, guaranteeing the most critical aspect of democracy and citizenship — the right to vote — to all men regardless of ‘‘race, color, or previous condition of servitude.’’

For this fleeting moment known as Reconstruction, the majority in Congress seemed to embrace the idea that out of the ashes of the Civil War, we could create the multiracial democracy that black Americans envisioned even if our founding fathers did not.

But it would not last.

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Re: The 1619 Project
« Reply #31 on: October 28, 2019, 10:44:02 am »
The 1619 Project



Anti-black racism runs in the very DNA of this country, as does the belief, so well articulated by Lincoln, that black people are the obstacle to national unity.



The many gains of Reconstruction were met with fierce white resistance throughout the South, including unthinkable violence against the formerly enslaved, wide-scale voter suppression, electoral fraud and even, in some extreme cases, the overthrow of democratically elected biracial governments.

Faced with this unrest, the federal government decided that black people were the cause of the problem and that for unity’s sake, it would leave the white South to its own devices.



In 1877, President Rutherford B. Hayes, in order to secure a compromise with Southern Democrats that would grant him the presidency in a contested election, agreed to pull federal troops from the South.

With the troops gone, white Southerners quickly went about eradicating the gains of Reconstruction.



The systemic white suppression of black life was so severe that this period between the 1880s and the 1920 and ’30s became known as the Great Nadir, or the second slavery.


Democracy would not return to the South for nearly a century.


White Southerners of all economic classes, on the other hand, thanks in significant part to the progressive policies and laws black people had championed, experienced substantial improvement in their lives even as they forced black people back into a quasi slavery.


As Waters McIntosh, who had been enslaved in South Carolina, lamented,

‘‘It was the poor white man who was freed by the war, not the Negroes.’’

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Re: The 1619 Project
« Reply #32 on: October 28, 2019, 03:06:32 pm »
The 1619 Project



Georgia pines flew past the windows of the Greyhound bus carrying Isaac Woodard home to Winnsboro, S.C.

After serving four years in the Army in World War II, where Woodard had earned a battle star, he was given an honorable discharge earlier that day at Camp Gordon and was headed home to meet his wife.

When the bus stopped at a small drugstore an hour outside Atlanta, Woodard got into a brief argument with the white driver after asking if he could use the restroom.

About half an hour later, the driver stopped again and told Woodard to get off the bus.

Crisp in his uniform, Woodard stepped from the stairs and saw the police waiting for him.

Before he could speak, one of the officers struck him in his head with a billy club, beating him so badly that he fell unconscious.

The blows to Woodard’s head were so severe that when he woke in a jail cell the next day, he could not see.

The beating occurred just 4 & a half hours after his military discharge.

At 26, Woodard would never see again.

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Re: The 1619 Project
« Reply #33 on: October 30, 2019, 07:58:33 am »
The 1619 Project



There was nothing unusual about Woodard’s horrific maiming.


It was part of a wave of systemic violence deployed against black Americans after Reconstruction, in both the North and the South.

As the egalitarian spirit of post-Civil War America evaporated under the desire for national reunification, black Americans, simply by existing, served as a problematic reminder of this nation’s failings.



White America dealt with this inconvenience by constructing a savagely enforced system of racial apartheid that excluded black people almost entirely from mainstream American life — a system so grotesque that Nazi Germany would later take inspiration from it for its own racist policies.